Agricultural Research Service Agricultural Research Service ARS _df3a534c-93cc-4929-83dc-170d0d80c19d Leading America towards a better future through agricultural research and information _39f4df60-efcf-48b0-b806-11ff899662b4 ARS conducts research to develop and transfer solutions to agricultural problems of high national priority and provide information access and dissemination to: Ensure high-quality, safe food, and other agricultural products; assess the nutritional needs of Americans; sustain a competitive agricultural economy; enhance the natural resource base and the environment; and provide economic opportunities for rural citizens, communities, and society as a whole. _c6091c92-c7df-423a-b34d-1e52e209ab50 Economic Opportunities ENHANCE ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS _166105fe-8881-4a54-bf33-f7d1d199dd49 1 Expanding markets for agricultural products is critical to the long-term economic health and prosperity of our food and agricultural sector. U.S. farmers have a wealth of natural resources, cutting edge technologies, and a supporting infrastructure that result in a production capacity beyond domestic needs. This capacity can be used to expand global markets and in the development of new uses for agriculture in industrial and pharmaceutical markets. ARS will conduct research and transfer technologies designed to generate new knowledge; increase productivity; improve production systems; enhance resource efficiencies; improve processing quality, performance, and value of commodities; and develop technologies to reduce non-tariff trade barriers. The national needs for scientific agricultural information will be met in a timely manner. U.S. agricultural producers and processors of all sizes will have access to current knowledge and technologies. Because trade issues are global, ARS will expand collaboration with foreign research institutions. The outcomes will be technologies and practices that encourage trade in agricultural products and mitigate non-tariff barriers to such commerce. Knowledge and Technologies Provide the Science-Based Knowledge and Technologies To Generate New or Improved High Quality, Value-Added Products and Processes To Expand Domestic and Foreign Markets for Agricultural Commodities _b410765b-9853-4642-aef2-5865fabdfc92 1.1 Intense competition in the global marketplace and pressure on U.S. farm policy to reduce price supports emphasize the need for U.S. agriculture to pursue and market higher value agricultural products. U.S. renewable agricultural and forestry resources provide an abundant source of raw material for value-added food, fiber, industrial products, and fuels. ARS can make important contributions in developing new and improved value-added products from U.S. agriculture through research and development and effectively demonstrating and transferring to customers the knowledge necessary to provide new marketable agricultural products, generate new uses, implement value‑added processes, and effect product quality enhancements. New products, new uses, and value‑added processes that appeal to consumers will create additional demand‑driven need for agricultural production, thus providing more opportunities for agricultural producers and businesses. Biobased technologies promise new opportunities for energy, industrial, and pharmacological markets for U.S. farmers. New markets are emerging for environmental activities and products that mitigate environmental concerns. The cornerstones for all of these advances are the timely, relevant, and quality research activities that form the foundation on which new products are developed and the outreach activities that help establish these new products in both the domestic and foreign marketplace. Performance Measures: 1.1.1: Develop cost effective and functional industrial and consumer products from agricultural and forestry resources. Baseline: 2002 – Biobased products represent a small fraction of the market for industrial products. Performance of biobased products is uncertain. Some biobased products are not economically competitive with petroleum-based products. Target: 2007 – Functional performance of biobased products that is similar to or superior to petroleum-based products. Cost parity between biobased products and petroleum-based products. Significantly improved penetration of markets for products traditionally made from petrochemicals with biobased products. Enhanced markets for agricultural products and residues. Stimulation of economies, especially in rural areas. 1.1.2: Provide higher quality, healthy foods that satisfy consumer needs in the United States and abroad. Baseline: 2002 – Many agricultural products are marketed as low-value commodities. Harvested commodities often suffer large postharvest losses due to spoilage or damage during handling. Healthy foods are often not convenient to consumer and/or are not highly acceptable to significant numbers of consumers. Many foreign markets are closed to U.S. commodities because of quarantines erected by other countries. Target: 2007 – Export higher value food crops and products. Extend quality and shelf life of fresh and minimally processed foods. Provide consumers with convenient, highly acceptable, healthy foods. Quarantine issues are resolved, and foreign markets are opened. 1.1.3: Improve efficiency and reduce cost for conversion of biomass to energy. Baseline: 2002 – Biofuels are currently not economically competitive with petroleum fuels. Biomass is difficult to convert into fermentable sugars. Biodiesel quality factors need improvement. Target: 2007 – Produce biofuels with life cycle benefits similar or superior to petroleum fuels. Improved conversion of recalcitrant biomass to fermentable sugars. Biodiesel quality similar to or superior to petrodiesel. 7a4d795f-2f21-484c-bd49-629468014b36 710ab869-3a99-4559-8172-633c63208bbb Agricultural Productilon System Contribute to the Efficiency of Agricultural Production Systems _c744513b-88dc-4af3-8df1-9e1361df62ff 1.2 Intense competition in global markets and pressure on U.S. farm policy to reduce price supports emphasize the need for American agriculture to pursue and market higher value agricultural products. Research must respond to consumer demands for more healthful and safe products to ensure a sustainable and profitable agricultural production system that capitalizes on an abundant source of raw material for value-added food, fiber, and industrial products. These superior technologies must effectively differentiate U.S. agricultural products from competing sources and provide customers with value-added processes that enhance product quality. ARS will develop and disseminate science-based information to provide U.S. producers of agricultural products with increased flexibility to effectively manage unforeseen risks that affect profitability and product quality. U.S. agricultural production and marketability is constantly influenced by factors such as unpredictable weather, disease and pest outbreaks, and changing consumer demands. Use of genetically diverse germplasm resource collections and best management practices requires research that helps improve production efficiency and productivity through the development of pest resistant varieties and information to facilitate decision-making. Performance Measures: 1.2.1: Provide producers with scientific information and technology that increase production efficiency, develop improved germplasm, safeguard the environment, improve animal well-being, and reduce production risks and product losses. Baseline: 2002 – Key animal production systems have been identified and research is being conducted that will lead to more efficient production techniques that safeguard the environment and reduce production risks. Target: 2007 – Specific information and technology will be available to food animal producers for evaluating animal productivity and well-being, increasing efficiency, and decreasing environmental impact through improved management models and reproduction methods. 1.2.2: Develop needed information on the relationships between nutrients, reproduction, growth, and conversion to and marketability of animal products. Baseline: 2002 – Information exists for several economically significant species on the relationship between feed intake, utilization, and nutrient requirements related to animal growth. Target: 2007 – Information will be available to producers for more efficiently converting improved knowledge about the interaction of reproduction, growth, and nutrient intake to increase marketability of food animals. 1.2.3: Identify genes responsible for economically important traits, including animal product quality, efficiency of nutrient utilization, and environmental adaptability. Baseline: 2002 – Identified important quality trait loci in a variety of food animals and made progress on sequencing parts of several animal genomes. Target: 2007 – Better understanding will be available of how genes are responsible for economically important traits in food animals, such as nutrient utilization and environmental adaptability. 1.2.4: Maintain, characterize, and use genetic resources to optimize and safeguard genetic diversity and promote viable, vigorous animal production systems. Baseline: 2002 – Established a repository and developed techniques for the long-term preservation and identification of genetic resources of economically significant animals. Target: 2007 – The diversity of food animal germplasm will be maintained and optimized to invigorate production systems. 1.2.5: Provide producers with scientific information and technology that increase production efficiency, safeguard the environment, and reduce production risks and product losses. Baseline: 2002 – Production systems have been identified and information exists on the relationship between intake, utilization, and nutrient requirements for plant growth. Target: 2007 – Cultivars will be developed that are adapted for management practices that optimize soil microbial, carbon, nitrogen, and water resources for sustainable production; production systems and technologies will be developed that harness genetic potential to maximize profits and provide secure supply and market competitiveness; and user-friendly models and decision aids will be enhanced to determine cost-effective inputs for specific enterprises or the whole operation. 1.2.6: Improve the understanding of the biological mechanisms that influence plant growth, product quality, and marketability to enhance the competitive advantage of agricultural commodities. Baseline: 2002 – Information exists for several economically significant crops on the fundamental biological mechanisms that control seed composition. Target: 2007 – Information will be available for more species to guide manipulation of regulatory metabolic processes that influence plant growth, product composition, product quality, and profitability. 1.2.7: Identify genes responsible for plant product quality and resistance to disease, pests, and weather losses. Baseline: 2002 – Identified important quantitative trait loci that govern key agronomic traits for a variety of crop species and made progress on sequencing gene-rich regions of a limited number of plant genomes. Target: 2007 – Have a more complete understanding of the structure and function of genes responsible for quality, growth, and health of crops and how those individual genes are regulated in the context of gene systems or networks. 1.2.8: Maintain, characterize, and use genetic resources to optimize, safeguard, and enhance genetic diversity and promote viable and vigorous plant production systems. Baseline: 2002 – Established genebanks and techniques for the long-term preservation and identification of diverse genetic resources of economically significant crops to provide germplasm for development of varieties and with disease and pest resistance and weather tolerance. Target: 2007 – The diversity of the germplasm collections will be expanded by acquisition of new accessions, and genetic resources from these collections will be used to produce new and improved food, agricultural, and industrial applications for agricultural products. 7e746a89-f7af-44a9-9b5f-b6bd18635df4 c5301e29-61f8-412d-8f72-02d3ea21b0e0 Quality of Rural American Life SUPPORT INCREASED ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES AND IMPROVED QUALITY OF LIFE IN RURAL AMERICA _06097ecd-4199-4ae5-ba08-2ef8cffd7817 2 The major thrusts of the ARS mission are to conduct research that ensures high quality, safe food and other agricultural products; assesses the nutritional needs of Americans; sustains a competitive agricultural economy; and enhances the natural resource base and the environment. In doing these things, ARS also helps provide economic opportunities for rural citizens, communities, and society as a whole. While ARS research has a large and very positive impact on rural America, we have chosen to organize our research program around the other four programmatic USDA/REE/ARS Strategic Plan goals. ab70cbdf-8cfd-4f33-bc46-6d87dbbcf39a af61309d-2870-40ba-a728-66ab123f4d94 e987e202-004a-4e33-9a06-0ba63dd61be8 Safety of Food Supply ENHANCE PROTECTION AND SAFETY OF THE NATION’S AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SUPPLY _c88ffa83-31a6-45ea-b399-c224cbd6345c 3 Reduce Food-Borne Illness Provide Science-Based Knowledge on the Safe Production, Storage, Processing, and Handling of Plant and Animal Products and on the Detection and Control of Toxin-producing and/or Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi Parasites, Mycotoxins, Chemical Residues, and Plant Toxins So as To Assist Regulatory Agencies and the Food Industry in Reducing the Incidence of Foodborne Illnesses _1c046b29-dcdc-4236-9851-f121eac3af15 3.1 Central to providing a safe food supply is preventing the contamination of food by pathogens, toxins, or chemical contaminants throughout production and distribution. Contamination of food can result from complex and diverse factors ranging across agricultural practices, ecological and environmental factors, manure use, water quality, weather, plant and animal genetics, industrial hygiene, storage and packaging, transportation, and food preparation. The safety of our food supply has long been a priority; the increased threat of intentional introduction has placed more emphasis on food safety in general and specifically on methods to prevent and detect contamination during processing and distribution. Basic applied and developmental science and resulting technologies and management practices are key to both preventing and detecting contamination of the food supply by microbial pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites), bacterial toxins, fungal toxins (mycotoxins), or chemical residues. Performance Measures: 3.1.1: Develop new on-farm preharvest systems, practices, and products to reduce pathogen and toxin contamination of animal- and plant-derived foods. Baseline: 2002 – Achieved development of some practices and products that reduce preharvest contamination of animal- and plant-derived food products, e.g., AF 36, the non-aflatoxin competitive fungus that prevents aflatoxin in cottonseed and a program for broiler growers that will reduce the contamination of broilers with Salmonella and Campylobacter. Target: 2007 – Develop practices and/or products that reduce preharvest contamination of two additional major animal- and plant-derived food products. 3.1.2: Develop and transfer to Federal agencies and the private sector systems that rapidly and accurately detect, identify, and differentiate the most critical and economically important foodborne microbial pathogens. Baseline: 2002 – Achieved various stages of sequencing and annotating the genomes for several different bacterial pathogens that will be used to develop these systems. Target: 2007 – Develop practices and/or products that reduce postharvest contamination of two additional major animal- and plant-derived food products. 1d2cbfa9-754e-445b-8d40-c0c5cc241098 e59794b4-94ae-454c-9809-f4c8d20a4876 Reduce Pest, Insect, Weed, and Disease Outbreaks Develop and Deliver Science-Based Information and Technologies To Reduce the Number and Severity of Agricultural Pest, Insect, Weed, and Disease Outbreaks _86ec5991-6986-4e82-a59f-febab65e61ab 3.2 Economic sustainability of agricultural crop and livestock systems and participation in global markets is limited by the disease status of crops and livestock. Many factors affect the likelihood of diseases to crops and livestock. These include globalization and international commerce, presence of pathogen vectors, industrialization of agriculture, availability of vaccines and protection systems, movements of animals during production, continued emergence of new diseases, genetic resistance of crops and livestock, and the availability of trained plant and animal health specialists. Livestock production systems are in transition from open and extensive systems to more closely monitored intensive management systems but remain vulnerable to accidental and intentional exposure to pathogens. Many of these pathogens are zoonotic and affect public health. Crops have limited diversity and will remain vulnerable to intentional exposure to pathogens. New science-based approaches to protection of crops and livestock are necessary to meet the demands of new production systems and new threats to agriculture. ARS has a critical role in providing the science basis for biosecurity and disease management, developing optimal agricultural practices, understanding emerging diseases, and transferring knowledge and technologies to producers and crop and animal health professionals. Performance Measures: 3.2.1: Provide scientific information to protect animals from pests, infectious diseases, and other disease-causing entities that affect animal and human health. Baseline: 2002 – The pathogenicity, virulence determinants, and transmission mechanisms of animal pathogens are studied to improve biosecurity and disease management. Target: 2007 – Increase the delivery of dependable high quality scientific information to customers, stakeholders, and partners. New discoveries and technologies will be effectively communicated to improve the management of diseases that affect the livestock, poultry, and which may affect public health. Effective communication will be achieved by publishing in highly regarded scientific journals and trade publications and on the Internet and through presentations at industry meetings. 3.2.2: Identify, develop, and release to the U.S. agricultural community genetic markers, genetic lines, breeds, or germplasm that result in food animals with improved (either through traditional breeding or biotechnology) pest- and disease-resistance traits. Baseline: 2002 – Initiated the identification of genetic markers that are associated with resistance to parasites and infectious diseases (e.g., avian coccidiosis, Ostertagia, Marek’s disease). Identified and implemented the use of new and improved technologies for selecting animals with disease-resistance traits. Target: 2007 – Release new and improved genetic lines, breeds, and/or germplasm of food animals that exhibit enhanced pest- and disease-resistance traits. 3.2.3: Develop and transfer tools to the agricultural community, commercial partners, and Federal agencies to control or eradicate domestic and exotic diseases that affect animal and human health. Baseline: 2002 – Completed the genomic sequencing of some domestic and exotic pathogens and identified unique sequences that are potential targets for diagnostic and vaccine development. Target: 2007 – Develop diagnostic and preventative tools to control and/or eradicate domestic and exotic diseases that affect production, trade, and public health. Provide action agencies with data to support risk analyses to assess the impact of domestic and exotic diseases and develop control and eradication strategies. 3.2.4: Develop and release to potential users varieties and/or germplasm of agriculturally important plants that are new or provide significantly improved (either through traditional breeding or biotechnology) characteristics enhancing pest or disease resistance. Baseline: 2002 – Developed molecular diagnostics for classification of diseases that threaten economically significant plants and established more effective technologies for selecting plants with disease resistance to Sclerotinia, downy mildew, rusts, and exotic viral diseases. Target: 2007 – Make available reliable diagnostic molecular assays to detect and identify emerging diseases and pests. Primers and probes are developed and protocols established for validation by State action agencies and cooperators. 3.2.5: Provide fundamental and applied scientific information and technology to protect agriculturally important plants from pests and diseases. Baseline: 2002 – Cultural and management practices have been studied and improvements explored that will provide additional protection for agriculturally important plants from diseases, pests, pathogens, insects and/or weeds. Target: 2007 – Specific information and technology will be available to producers to control disease and pest outbreaks as they occur. Strategies and approaches will be available to producers to control emerging crop diseases and pest outbreaks. 3.2.6: Provide needed scientific information and technology to producers of agriculturally important plants in support of exclusion, detection and early eradication; control and monitoring of invasive insects, weeds and pathogens; and restoration of affected areas. Conduct biologically based integrated and areawide management of key invasive species. Baseline: 2002 – Developed and implemented strategies for management of key invasive pest species such as Asian longhorned beetle, leafy spurge, melaleuca, and other species. Providing data in support of APHIS and other action agencies. Conducting six areawide pest management programs for insects and weeds. Increasing systematic capabilities for rust diseases and insect pests. Developing data for use in risk analyses of biological control agents, particularly with regard to modeling prediction of risk and protection of non-target species. NAL operates web portal. Target: 2007 – Knowledge and understanding of the ecology, physiology, epidemiology, and molecular biology of emerging diseases and pests will be improved. This knowledge will be incorporated into pest-risk assessments and management strategies to minimize chemical inputs and increase production. 89929103-b038-4c85-9922-b85cdff37bec 27457141-326d-479d-8834-4263ef3f9384 Nutrition and Health IMPROVE THE NATION’S NUTRITION AND HEALTH _fda9dd12-f1bf-4fc9-971c-a3bb259b41df 4 Healthy Food Choices and Lifestyles Promote Healthier Individual Food Choices and Lifestyles and Prevent Obesity; Improve Human Health by Better Understanding the Nutrient Requirements of Individuals and the Nutritional Value of Foods; Determine Food Consumption Patterns of Americans. _7d97486c-ccaa-471d-9546-a70d7530139c 4.1 Good health is dependent on consumption of foods that have the right balance of nutrients to meet an individual’s needs. Nutritional values of foods appear to be more complex than their fat, carbohydrate, protein, mineral, and vitamin composition. Recent progress points to classes of compounds that play a critical role in health, such as antioxidants, lycopenes, and isoflavones. The role of these and other food components on individual health needs to be characterized. In addition, there are very few studies to discover and measure the presence of other new classes of nutrients in the varied food supply. Building databases of food composition is critical to developing healthy diets. Also critical is improving the health- promoting value of food, through selection, biotechnology, processing, and other practices. ARS research will determine the requirements for new classes of nutrients, determine their composition in a variety of foods, and enhance the nutritional value of our food. Performance Measures: 4.1.1: Scientifically assess the efficacy of enhancements to the nutritional value of our food supply and identify, conduct, and support intramural and extramural research to develop, test, and evaluate effective clinical and community dietary intervention strategies and programs for modifying diet, eating behavior, and food choices to improve the nutritional status of targeted populations. A special emphasis is to prevent obesity and promote healthy dietary behaviors. Baseline: 2002 – Developed a tomato with enhanced levels of lycopene. Established local cooperators to define and implement Nutritional Intervention Research Initiatives (Delta NIRI) in a consortium of communities in the tri-state Lower Mississippi Delta area. Target: 2007 – Scientifically assess the health benefits to humans of two new functional foods introduced via ARS research programs. Execute and report on two completed Delta NIRI projects. 4.1.2: Define functions, bioavailability, interactions, and human requirements (including effects such as genetic, health status, and environmental factors) for known, emerging, and new classes of nutrients. Determine the abundance of known, emerging, and new classes of nutrients in the food supply and provide that information in databases. Baseline: 2002 – Provided background information and research required to update and revise Dietary Reference Intakes. Issued Release 15 of the USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Target: 2007 – Develop research information and technology on human requirements and functions of known and emerging classes of nutrients and on the relationships between diet and health needed to support Departmental food policy reflective of revised Dietary Guidelines 2005. Expand the Nutrient Database for Standard Reference to include phytochemicals and release the joint ARS-NIH Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID). 4.1.3: Determine food consumption patterns of Americans, including those of different ages, ethnicity, regions, and income levels. Provide sound scientific analyses of the U.S. food consumption information to enhance the effectiveness and management of the Nation’s domestic food and nutrition assistance programs. Baseline: 2002 – Implemented the combined “What We Eat in America” dietary survey and provided food consumption information for 5,000 individuals. Target: 2007 – Provide food consumption information from the “What We Eat in America” dietary survey for 10,000 individuals. 01c376f1-a4ed-4282-b8fc-035918ffbbda 7657e77a-b572-46ce-91eb-00a21309f561 Natural Resources and Environment PROTECT AND ENHANCE THE NATION’S NATURAL RESOURCE BASE AND ENVIRONMENT _55667adc-ad1e-4a79-9ec9-1b19a245223c 5 Forest, Rangelands, and Pastures Provide Science-Based Knowledge and Education To Improve the Management of Forest, Rangelands, and Pastures _88889f8a-01d7-4b8f-88c3-0c9086d8e77f 5.1 Forest, rangeland, and pasture ecosystems provide a number of goods and services that are critical to maintaining a healthy and livable environment. Among those are clean water, clean air, productive soils, carbon storage, biodiversity, scenic vistas, and recreational opportunities. In addition, they are an important source of food, fiber, and forest products. Even though these systems are managed less intensively than conventional farmlands, sound scientific management is critical in maintaining their goods and services. ARS will provide the knowledge base to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of ecosystem management strategies that will give the greatest long-term benefits from our public and private forests, rangelands, and pastures, including the mitigation of global change. Performance Measures: 5.1.1: Develop ecologically based information, technologies, germplasm, and management strategies that sustain agricultural production while conserving and enhancing the diverse natural resources found on rangelands and pasture lands. Baseline: 2002 – Approximately half of the rangelands have been significantly degraded by fire, invasive weeds, environmental changes, and poor grazing management. Target: 2007 – Demonstrate management strategies that integrate improved germplasm, biological controls, grazing practices, prescribed fire and decision-support tools to promote the restoration of degraded rangelands in a sustainable manner. 78a4148a-555c-452d-9aad-5ff6bc38bb5b 35af3978-8162-439c-8702-b691825f2572 Soil, Air, and Water Resources Provide Science-Based Knowledge and Education To Improve Quality and Management of Soil, Air, and Water Resources _0ed5f890-a800-490e-960f-e70576f917c4 5.2 Intensively managed croplands, in addition to providing food and fiber, play a critical role in determining air, water, and soil quality. Because these lands are intensively utilized, effective management is critical in sustaining the Nation’s natural resource base. Sound scientific management of productive croplands should lead to the maintenance of sustainable high levels of soil, air, and water quality and benefit both agricultural production and the environment. Not the least of the benefits of improved production systems is removing the necessity of farming environmentally sensitive marginal lands. ARS will provide producers with management practices and tools that will allow sustainable food, feed, and fiber production while protecting soil, air, and water resources. Performance Measures: 5.2.1: Develop the tools and techniques required to maintain and restore the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Nation’s watersheds and its surface and groundwater resources. Baseline: 2002 – Currently EPA estimates that 70 percent of the rivers, 68 percent of the estuaries, and 60 percent of the lakes now meet legislatively mandated goals. Target: 2007 – ARS, in conjunction with other Federal, State, and local agencies, will provide the tools and means to improve the quality of the Nation’s waters that affect agricultural watersheds. 5.2.2: Develop agricultural practices that maintain or enhance soil resources, thus ensuring sustainable food, feed, and fiber production while protecting environmental quality. Baseline: 2002 – Approximately 500 million acres of cropland and grazingland have been degraded by various causes, including erosion, loss of organic matter, compaction, salinity, and soil acidification. Target: 2007 – Develop improved conservation practices and systems that would, if adopted, improve productivity, conserve soil resources, and enhance environmental quality. 5.2.3: Develop approaches that mitigate the impact of poor air quality on crop production and provide scientific information and technology to maintain or enhance crop and animal production while controlling emissions that reduce air quality or destroy the ozone layer. Baseline: 2002 – Dust emissions from agricultural operations and ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations pose a threat to environmental quality and human health. Target: 2007 – Develop management practices that would, if adopted, reduce dust emissions from agricultural operations. 5.2.4: Develop agricultural practices and decision-support strategies that allow producers to take advantage of beneficial effects and mitigate adverse impacts of global change. Baseline: 2002 – Increases in the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and related increases in weather variability affect the physiology and ecology of plants on croplands and rangelands in often unpredictable ways. Target: 2007 – Develop models that will provide quantitative estimates of how management practices will affect crop production and soil carbon sequestration under climatic and carbon dioxide conditions projected for major U.S. agricultural systems in the mid-21st century. 5.2.5: Develop management practices, treatment technologies, and decision tools for effective use of animal manure and selected industrial and municipal byproducts to improve soil properties and enhance crop production while protecting the environment. Baseline: 2002 – Inappropriate management of animal manure and byproducts poses a threat to soil, water, and air quality. Target: 2007 – Develop manure and byproduct management practices and treatment technologies that improve soil quality; reduce inputs of nutrients, sediment, and pathogens to surface and ground waters; and reduce air emissions of gases and particulates from animal feeding operations. 5.2.6: Develop agricultural and decision-support systems that assist in increasing the efficiency of agricultural enterprises and achieve economic and environmental sustainability. Baseline: 2002 – Inadequate tools to replace those lost because of environmental constraints and the uncertainty of outcomes (financial, ecological, and social) and interactions associated with changing cropping management systems are constraining the development of sustainable agriculture management systems. Target: 2007 – Develop alternative crop and animal production systems that increase productivity and profitability. aa397925-ff04-45ba-bab0-19ae1a7f6fd0 fd63ef20-5d36-41f3-8850-4e1ad013ad84 Quality, Relevance, and Performance of Research Management Initiative 0.1: Ensuring the Quality, Relevance, and Performance of ARS Research (Covers All Research Objectives) _d6467e0b-2bf6-4d5b-abae-64c132b6be1d 6 Mechanisms Provide Mechanisms To Ensure the Relevance, Quality, and Performance of the ARS Research Program _76dda0f7-2195-4c59-a086-c90a79e5a87f 6.0 Performance Measures: 6.0.1: Relevance: ARS’ basic, applied, and developmental research programs are well conceived, have specific programmatic goals, and address high priority national needs. Baseline: 2002 – NPS is currently developing a system that will track data on National Program workshops, conferences, mid-term assessments, and other activities that are designed to ensure the relevancy of the research program. Target: 2007 – When the baseline data is collected, specific targets will be established for FY 2007. 6.0.2: Quality: ARS research projects are reviewed by National Program by external peer review panels at the beginning of the 5-year program cycle. Baseline: 2002 – OSQR reviewed 115 research projects (7 required no revisions, 46 required minor revisions, 29 required moderate revisions, 28 required major revisions, and 5 were found to be not feasible). Target: 2007 – OSQR plans to review 200 research projects. Baseline: 2002 – RPES conducted 378 reviews of ARS scientists; 186 (49.2%) were upgraded, 191 (50.5%) remained in grade or were referred to the Super Grade Panel, and 1 (0.3%) had a grade/category problem. Target: 2007 – RPES will conduct 340 reviews of ARS scientists. 6.0.3: Performance: ARS will monitor and measure the performance of each research unit and National Program. Baseline: 2002 – NPS is currently developing a system that will track data on on-site location reviews, papers published, CRADAs entered into, patents and licenses applied for, and plant varieties and germplasm releases that demonstrate National Program performance. Target: 2007 – When the baseline data is collected, specific targets will be established for FY 2007. 6599814a-4174-4cec-8e0b-7948bb1e891d db5a729f-1287-4aa9-9bea-28efab1616d0 Library and Information Resources Provide Rapid, Comprehensive, and Long-Term Access to the Full Range of Agricultural Information Resources Through a Variety of National Agricultural Library (NAL) Delivery Systems, With Particular Emphasis on Digital Technologies _5e5d3b78-9983-4b15-b692-a42f24d28990 6.1 In 2002, the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education and Economics Advisory Board made recommendations to the Secretary of Agriculture about the role and future development of the National Agricultural Library. In particular, the Board recommended that NAL work with a broad array of partners and stakeholders to develop the NAL National Digital Library for Agriculture (NDLA). The NDLA incorporates many of NAL’s existing programs and services, while deepening and expanding NAL’s digital collections and electronic information services. By 2007, NAL expects to have made significant progress toward developing the NDLA. The NDLA will provide services via highly trained specialized staff and modern information technologies, based on a mix of printed and other physical publications and a large universe of information that will exist primarily or solely in digital format. These services will enable NAL to provide integrated, seamless access to a broader and deeper array of resources than has been possible through previous services. Performance Measures: 6.1.1: Develop and deliver content for the NAL National Digital Library for Agriculture (NDLA). Baseline: 2002 –The National Agricultural Library (NAL) receives 19,000 printed journal titles and serial publications and manages the access for USDA to 2,100 digital publications (ejournals, statistics, reports, databases, etc.). This literature, along with that already in NAL’s more than 3 million item national collection of agricultural literature, documents the knowledge base in the food and agricultural sciences. Procedures and policies for delivering electronic publications to desktops, for example via NAL’s DigiTop initiative for USDA staff, are evolving. NAL provides information to a broad customer base via reference services, web sites, and specialized information centers. NAL provides leadership and support for the Agriculture Network Information Center (AgNIC). Target: 2007 – NAL’s national collection of agricultural literature in printed, digital, and other publication formats is comprehensive. NAL provides information in direct support of USDA priorities in agriculture to a very large and broad customer base via Web-based reference and information services, digital desktop access for licensed electronic publications, and rapid document delivery for paper-based materials. NAL serves as the hub for an information network of libraries and institutions with access to a variety of information resources. 6.1.2: Integrate the NAL AGRICOLA database into the NDLA. Baseline: 2002 – AGRICOLA resides on an obsolete computer system implemented in 1988. A standard methodology to link AGRICOLA citations to the full text of publications available in digital form has not been implemented. Throughput time for AGRICOLA indexing of journal articles averages 180 days from receipt of the journal issue to appearance of indexing records in AGRICOLA. Target: 2007 – AGRICOLA is the state-of-the-art online index to all NAL resources. AGRICOLA is compatible with current information technology standards for record input and output as well as for linking digital resources. Throughput time for indexing top priority journal articles is 30 days or less. 6.1.3: Ensure long-term access to the resources of the NAL NDLA. Baseline: 2002 – A digitization program is initiated to convert USDA publications from printed copies into digital publications. Metadata standards are developed for description of digital resources and the registration of persistent unique identifiers for digital objects, which will enable long-term consistent retrieval of publications in digital format. Target: 2007 – NAL will have digitized and preserved digitally 50,000 core documents from NAL non-digital collection materials to preserve them and provide Web access for customers. NAL takes responsibility for USDA documents by implementing a national plan for preserving agricultural information in standard digital formats. d8732298-fcb7-42b4-ac82-687ec9e95cc4 84c74de9-5b74-41e5-9fe3-66cefdca033f 2002-10-01 2007-09-30 2010-02-08 Arthur Colman ( Submit error.