Building an Innovation-Based Economy This paper looks at ways to reform our economy, improve public sector performance, and train people for 21st century jobs. It draws on a day-long workshop we organized with two dozen innovation leaders in June, 2012 and online crowd-sourcing with several hundred experts around the country in the areas of innovation, technology, and economic development. We asked these individuals to help us develop new solutions to our continuing economic and political woes. This included the identification of promising reform ideas and ways to encourage growth through innovation. We compiled their suggestions and organized them into themes; and they are presented below in an actionable format for policymakers to consider. The Internet is creating tremendous social, economic, and cultural value. Through digital connections, people are innovating, communicating with one another, and creating businesses. Yet despite these positive benefits, the United States is experiencing slow economic growth and major barriers to public and private sector innovation. We need smarter policies in order to take full advantage of the digital economy and strengthen our capacity to build society, generate jobs, and improve long-term economic growth. This focus should be front and center for policymakers as they wrestle with social and economic challenges. Brookings Institution BI _d95968b8-1b67-41a8-936f-b32a852ae3d5 Center for Technology Innovation Darrell West, Author -- Darrell M. West is vice president and director of Governance Studies and founding director of the Center for Technology Innovation at the Brookings Institution. Allan Friedman Author -- Allan Friedman is a fellow in Governance Studies and research director of the Center for Technology Innovation at the Brookings Institution. Walter Valdivia Author -- Walter D. Valdivia is a fellow in the Center for Technology Innovation at the Brookings Institution. Joshua Bleiberg Research Assistant Tim Peacock Research Assistant Elizabeth Valentini Research Assistant Christine Jacobs Editor Stephanie Dahle Editor Mitchell Dowd Production & Layout Assistant _e33c1fb8-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c [To outline] ways to reform our economy, improve public sector performance, and train people for 21st century jobs. _e33c2076-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c Worker Productivity [Develop] better metrics for measuring worker productivity. _e33c20f8-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c 1 Productivity enhancement is key to economic growth. One of the factors that enabled economic development in the 1990s was productivity gains built on digital technology. The new technology associated with the Internet reduced communication and transaction costs and helped workers become more productive. Businesses were able to operate more efficiently and the economy as a whole experienced strong economic growth. To encourage better economic performance in the contemporary period, we need better metrics for measuring worker productivity that more fully captures the 21st century economy. Current measures focus on the efficiency of outputs from inputs in the production of goods and services. For instance, labor productivity is measured as the total national output (Gross Domestic Product) per unit of labor (hours worked or employed workers). These measures miss important aspects of the digital economy. Technology enables organizational reengineering on a large scale. It is crucial to understand how technology adds value, saves money, and reduces production time. We need more nuanced production measures other than worker hours or total employees in relation to GDP. Otherwise, it is hard to track operational efficiency in all phases of production. In addition, there are aspects of our economy that have not fully embraced or been transformed by technology. Education and health care represent two of the largest sectors that have not fully experienced the impact of transformational digital change. In many respects (we still deliver education and health care in a similar manner as several decades ago). In each area, there are policy barriers that stand in the way of adopting productivity-enhancing technologies. For example, government licensing requirements sometimes stand in the way of advances in distance education and telemedicine. We need more flexible licensing in order to overcome the limitations of geographically-based systems. _e33c217a-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c 5988eef4-cd6c-402d-9e0b-7f1dd2fbec44 Entrepreneurship Encourage entrepreneurship. _e33c2210-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c 2 Entrepreneurs Small Business Administration We should encourage entrepreneurship by expanding Small Business Administration credit for start ups, adding entrepreneurial skills to school curricula, and making changes in immigration policy that encourage entrepreneurs to come to America. Loans Encourage the Small Business Administration (SBA) and private financial institutions to make loans to entrepreneurs. _e33c229c-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c 2.1 Small Business Administration (SBA) Financial Institutions Entrepreneurs First, we should encourage the Small Business Administration (SBA) and private financial institutions to make loans to entrepreneurs. Gaining access to capital is one of the hardest parts of launching new businesses. Startups report that in many cases this is the most difficult hurdle. It is a challenge to find funds for new ventures or to locate financial resources for business expansion. Making sure that the SBA has sufficient funding to support small business should be a top priority for economic expansion. 387b25e5-4e28-40a3-9f98-d42705607b5d Immigration Policy Changes immigration policy to encourage those with entrepreneurial skills to come and stay in the United States. _a7ed44a0-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 2.2 Immigrants Second, we need to make changes in our immigration policy to encourage those with entrepreneurial skills to stay (or come) to the United States. Foreign students who earn graduate degrees in STEM fields should get visas that allow them to remain in the United States. Research has shown that 25 percent of the technology and engineering businesses launched in the United States between 1995 to 2005 had a foreign-born founder. And in Silicon Valley, the center of the high-tech industry, 52 percent of the new tech start-ups had a foreign-born owner. 75a6ce58-2150-45df-93bd-5d916eb3ddd6 Country Caps & Venture Capital Visas Eliminate per-country visa caps, and expand entrepreneur and venture capital visas for those who invest major financial resources in job creation. _a7ed495a-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 2.3 Third, we should eliminate per-country visa caps, and expand entrepreneur and venture capital visas for those who invest major financial resources in job creation. According to current law, those who invest $1 million in a new startup and create a minimum of 10 jobs receive a green card through the EB-5 visa program and therefore are able to stay in the United States. This initiative is a good start but the financial threshold is too high for many small businesses. Lowering the initial investment to $250,000 would enable more immigrants to qualify for the visa program and expand opportunities for job creation. f662035d-5236-4111-aafb-374f069a0308 Internships Encourage students to take internships that develop entrepreneurial skills. _a7ed4ad6-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 2.4 Students Interns Fourth, we should encourage students to take internships that develop entrepreneurshial skills. This involves everything from learning how to commercialize knowledge, attract investment capital, market products, and develop business plans. Gaining experience in each of these areas boosts the probability that young people will launch actual companies. d5fa7c6b-314b-4ca4-b74f-7c804dabcc45 Metrics Develop new metrics for measuring entrepreneurship and its impact on the economy. _a7ed4c02-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 2.5 Finally, over the next decade, we should develop new metrics for measuring entrepreneurship and its impact on the economy. Benchmarks for assessing entrepreneurship would help public and private sector leaders focus on this important area and create incentives for changes in business, education, and immigration that encourage more entrepreneurial behavior. 2e4dc97b-530f-4e9c-ab1c-a0af7741bbf9 Innovation & Collaboration Learn to innovate and collaborate, and develop new approaches to service delivery, transparency, and participation _e33c2332-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c 3 We need governments that learn to innovate and collaborate, and develop new approaches to service delivery, transparency, and participation. This includes placing more data online and employing data analytical tools, social media, mobile technology, and search results that improve decision-making. _e33c23d2-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c 2220eb21-706a-4ce7-9f4e-cdf6f39b8367 Infrastructure Strengthen infrastructure. _e33c247c-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c 4 We should strengthen infrastructure by investing in broadband, data centers, and mobile cell towers, and improving access to spectrum for wireless applications. Broadband Encourage private companies to make investments that raise U.S. broadband adoption from 70 to 95 percent and increase broadband speed up to 50-100 mbps, especially for schools, hospitals, and libraries. _e33c2526-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c 4.1 Private Companies Schools Hospitals Libraries Given the importance of digital infrastructure, there are several actions that would improve the ability of our economy to enable innovation. We should encourage private companies to make investments that raise U.S. broadband adoption from 70 to 95 percent and increase broadband speed up to 50-100 mbps, especially for schools, hospitals, and libraries. 5d40e2c1-47e4-440d-ba41-2d8e5d970533 Internet & Mobile Access Improve Internet and mobile access to underserved communities. _a7ed4d42-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 4.2 Underserved Communities At the same time, we must improve Internet and mobile access to underserved communities. e9b7941e-9a8f-41de-8af7-dc6cf5ebfc09 Cell Towers & Fiber Optic Lines Streamline the approval process for building new cell towers and laying fiber optic lines. _a7ed4e8c-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 4.3 We need to streamline the approval process for building new cell towers and laying fiber optic lines. 5e3b439e-be9b-4b3e-992f-a5a24a710a7c Spectrum Provide greater access to spectrum for wireless applications. _a7ed4fcc-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 4.4 Having a 21st century infrastructure requires greater access to spectrum for wireless applications. We need more spectrum for exclusive licensed usage, a spectrum rights system that allows for multiple, non-interfering uses, and cognitive radio applications that make more efficient use of existing spectrum. We should keep unlicensed spectrum to encourage next generation innovation. Government agencies should pay fees for holding unused spectrum. 4d6506c5-e1f9-433f-9ef8-187a09a05202 Metrics [Develop] metrics that measure spectrum availability and allocation, the time involved in building cell towers, and Internet access and usage. _a7ed512a-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 4.5 We need metrics that measure spectrum availability and allocation, the time involved in building cell towers, and Internet access and usage. This would help track progress over time and identify areas in need of greater attention. 1f5e63de-baff-4267-a1d5-359a8f44a6b8 Data Access, Sharing & Analytics Expand data access, sharing, and analytics _a7ed527e-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 5 Many public and private sector organizations are sitting on a gold mine of information. Through data resources, data mining, and data sharing networks created with other entities, they have detailed material on consumer behavior, administrative data, student performance, hospital re-admission rates, Internet searches, and social media likes and dislikes, among others. Federal Data Expand federal data availability so that citizens and businesses have access to the latest and most relevant information. _a7ed53dc-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 5.1 Citizens Businesses Data.gov At Data.gov, for example, there is information on airport flight delay times, car safety ratings, crime statistics, small business loans, and business permits. People can download raw data, map information, or search for particular items of interest. We need to expand federal data availability so that citizens and businesses have access to the latest and most relevant information. This would improve data utilization and make it easier for people to access information. d00daa17-2565-46f0-bc61-71ac642d8379 Standards Expand data standardization efforts. _a7ed554e-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 5.2 Wise decisions are impossible without quality data, and government can play a key role in creating good data by expanding standardization efforts. These initiatives are most powerful when they are international in scope and have support from cross-national standards bodies, key regulators, and regulated industries. The same data that enables more effective and efficient decision-making have already been successfully used by these industries. One such example is the project for global Legal Entity Identifiers in the financial industry, promoted by the Financial Stability Board. This joint effort of global regulators, experts, and standards bodies argued strongly that better information management leads to better risk management and corporate governance. This type of effort, in conjunction with other attempts to apply the power of metadata and semantics to information objects, makes the government's job easier while simutaniously reducing the burden on private firms. 639f09a7-0a65-4f36-9090-b5fb2c2db74d Analysis Provide data analysis in real-time. _a7ed56b6-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 5.3 Teachers In the education area, for example, the development of computerized learning modules enables new forms of assessment. Data mining and data analytic software can provide immediate feedback to students and teachers about academic performance. Students Researchers Researchers can analyze underlying patterns to predict student dropout rates, at-risk students, or those capable of more demanding assignments. These approaches also can identify pedagogic approaches that are most effective with particular students. States As an indication of the possibilities in the education area, schools in sixteen states already employ data mining techniques to identify at-risk students. Using prediction models based on truancy, disciplinary problems, changes in course performance, and overall grades, analysts have discovered that they can identify students who are likely to drop out. School Districts A number of school districts have been successful in developing "risk-factor scorecards" that show who is at-risk and in need of special assistance. John Wilbanks Similar efficiencies can be gained in the health care area. Our workshop participant John Wilbanks, a senior fellow in entrepreneurship with the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, explained in the medical field that "information is available only to a small set of people and they can pervert the process. We need data autonomy and portability." Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation Medical Providers Medical providers should build data sharing networks that enable assessment of comparative effectiveness. Right now, many health policy decisions are based on inadequate analysis or incomplete information. Data analytics enable using information to improve medical decision-making. There are ways to improve service delivery while simultaneously reducing costs. In addition, data analytics have tremendous potential to transform public and private sector decision-making. By providing data analysis in real-time, analytics speed up the feedback loop and enable administrators and policymakers to see what data patterns are emerging and what the trends are over time. So-called "big data" make it possible to study different areas for insights regarding student performance, health care, energy efficiency, and public sector performance. Rather than rely on infrequent assessments, analysts can determine what is happening in real-time and what actions are associated with the most effective results. 24588757-a61e-4bf7-b0e6-5f82703a2b77 Metrics [Develop] metrics that track the use and impact of data analytics. _a7ed581e-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 5.4 Education Community Health Care Community Both education and health care are in need of new metrics that track the use and impact of data analytics. Once such measures are developed, it will become easier for policymakers to employ these numbers to measure budget effects, impact on learning, and ramifications for health care quality, access, and affordability. 0f8e9fa4-a8d8-482b-8d01-b103f24cf746 Digital Assets Protect vital digital assets. _e33c25f8-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c 6 We should protect vital digital assets by updating the Federal Information Security Management Act and developing procedures for monitoring threats to critical infrastructure. -- The digital revolution has enabled advances in productivity in many areas. Unfortunately, the benefits to society have also introduced new risks which we are just beginning to understand. How can we protect the systems and the process of increased agility and innovation on which we have come to depend? The government is one of the most vulnerable segments of society, both in terms of the magnitude of the threat and the poor state of preparedness. Federal policy for securing our digital infrastructure is hamstrung by the fact that most of the digital assets and the resources to secure them are controlled by the private sector. This requires a careful strategy that balances a number of priorities. We need to ensure good security practices in government and the private sector. FISMA Update and streamline the Federal Information Security Management Act. _e33c26b6-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c 6.1 National Institute of Standards and Technology Department of Homeland Security The first thing the government can do is get its own house in order. One needed step is to update and streamline the Federal Information Security Management Act. FISMA requires federal agencies to secure their information systems, and was a law ahead of its time when it was enacted in 2002. Recognizing that security is a process, it allowed organizations to assess their own risks and develop plans to address these risks with guidance from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Department of Homeland Security. Agencies need more leeway to make rapid decisions to improve the security of their networks. fa6675ad-34d5-4ad9-8f47-878940e6a765 Security Controls Establish baseline security controls, as well as mechanisms for gauging the effectiveness of these controls. _a7ed59b8-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 6.2 However, the security process has grown stagnant in recent years, and has failed to keep up with both the technology and how it is used. Compliance with this law is expensive and does not offer real insights into the risks faced by civilian government networks. Annual static assessments must give way to continuous monitoring, and experts in both the public and private sector should come together to establish baseline security controls, as well as mechanisms for gauging the effectiveness of these controls. afbaf938-f7d2-4f12-b1d1-6fa01c6ebadd FedRAMP Encourage public sector reliance upon FedRAMP. _a7ed5b98-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 6.3 One of the obstacles in securing government systems is the bureaucratic hurdle in using affordable and widely deployed commercial technology. As information technologies shift to a more virtualized infrastructure, the traditional approach of requirements-based acquisition is too slow and onerous, and therefore fails to address security risks. To address these concerns, cloud computing and security experts from across the Federal government have collaborated to establish the Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program. The executive branch must encourage public sector reliance upon FedRAMP. While this process of vendor security testing and certification does not solve all the problems with shifting government computing to the cloud, it addresses one of the biggest challenges. The public sector has established standards and requirements for assessors, and begun the process of certifying and authorizing cloud providers. The largest benefits of the program require widespread buy-in across the government, as agencies take advantage of products and architectures that have already been approved, without having to go through their own recertification process. This has the potential to dramatically streamline and simplify acquisition, making government IT adaptation and evolution cheaper and easier. 5b0cf2a8-922c-4c1b-bbe2-9d860201993f Data Breach Law Develop national data breach law to coordinate policies among the 50 states. _a7ed5d3c-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 6.4 States Private actors own and control many of the systems and information infrastructure at risk, which makes fostering good information security practices and resilience particularly tricky for the government. Securing cyberspace requires balancing incentives for secure investment and transparency for accountability. One approach to this has been the state-based data breach notification laws. First passed by California in 2004, these laws dramatically increased the number of breaches that the public knew about, as well as presented tangible costs to those responsible for privacy incidents. As a result, an entire industry has grown up around helping firms prevent, detect and deal with data breaches. Unfortunately, by regulating at the state level, firms with a national customer base must comply with some 47 different state laws. We must develop national data breach law to coordinate policies among the 50 states. It is important that this law maintain the goals of the original policy, which is to encourage firms to safeguard personal data, and provide public information about the state of data security. 702f8f51-6211-4296-a205-6dc63516d95f Cyber Attack Information Consider networks for sharing information or improved reporting requirements for publicly-traded companies that have been victims of cyber attacks. _a7ed5f1c-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 6.5 We should consider networks for sharing information or improved reporting requirements for publicly-traded companies that have been victims of cyber attacks. New guidelines issued in October 2011 direct public companies to review "adequacy of their disclosure relating to cybersecurity risks and cyber incidents," but these non-binding guidelines are not adequate. Firms can report general declarations of vulnerability or discussions of a threat environment, without revealing and being held accountable for specific losses. While it is important not to interfere with law enforcement and forensic investigations, firms that do not face short-run costs from successful attacks are much less likely to invest adequate resources in preventing them. This is particularly important for the theft of strategic information, which can have a cumulative effect for the American innovation-based economy. If no one reports serious data theft, policy makers will lack the necessary information to understand the threat of cyberespionage and be in a position to respond accordingly, both domestically and internationally. baea594a-5e77-4640-a41d-269b1668857d Trust Model Approach confidentiality of key cybersecurity data through a risk-based trust model. _a7ed60ca-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 6.6 The challenges of building a set of cybersecurity strategies are manifold, but a key obstacle is the need to share information. Secrecy is important, but too much can be just as bad as not enough. The importance of confidentiality spans from the public sector, where it is hidden away as classified, and the private sector, where liability and antitrust present risks to sharing information. The government must approach confidentiality of key cybersecurity data through a risk-based trust model, rather than riding on top of National Security classification systems. It is important to protect investigations and not reveal too much to the adversaries we are investigating, but the current default has gone too far in the opposite direction. Government monitoring and defenses first discovered a large percentage of attacks, breaches and security incidents. Federal agencies must expand their capacity to work with private companies under attack. An overemphasis on secrecy can further inhibit information sharing and disclosure that can drive accountability. Moreover, public analysis of data can guide the future of research, policy and law enforcement efforts. ee58ce32-5939-4a9f-b174-cc2cea051527 Context-Specific Organizations Promote information sharing through context-specific organizations rather than blanket laws. _a7ed6282-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 6.7 Defense Industrial Base Collaborative Information Sharing Environment Infraguard Many observers have stressed the importance of sharing information between private actors as well as between industry and the government. Sharing information allows collective action that can improve the odds for defenders. Firms argue that current laws punish companies for working together, exposing them to risks on the privacy, antitrust and liability fronts. Yet proposals to grant blanket immunity for information sharing can go too far in the opposite direction, compromising privacy and removing incentives to prevent security incidents with blanket liability protections. We must promote information sharing through context-specific organizations rather than blanket laws. Different types of information sharing require different contexts, be it automated data sharing between computer systems or carefully vetted and redacted incident reports. Information sharing is an organizational and architectural problem. The federal government can expand on efforts such as Infraguard and the Defense Industrial Base Collaborative Information Sharing Environment to foster trust and build flexible systems that enable multi-lateral information sharing. a3667957-6d52-4a0a-87de-5f0bcb4f627f Perspective Put the efforts to protect digital assets in perspective. _a7ed6476-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 6.8 Throughout each of these initiatives, it is important to put the efforts to protect digital assets in perspective. Threats can range from file sharing to strategic data theft; addressing one in a unilateral fashion can endanger long term efforts to address the other. Overzealous attempts to enforce security can endanger the entire digital ecosystem if it leads to overly broad systems of control that inhibit innovation. This applies to government policy that can drive up costs of developing new tools, as well as private technical and legal enforcement that can inhibit business model innovation and the creation of new works. 544436fd-1a64-4673-b7a2-3c8ed2c15605 Metrics [Develop] metrics that measure information-sharing about cyber-security incidents. _a7ed664c-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 6.9 FedRamp To examine the impact of these ideas, we require metrics that measure information-sharing about cyber-security incidents. Improved data would show the extent of the problem and shed light on possible remedies to improve security. We also should measure utilization of various FedRamp applications in order to see how the national government is implementing different efforts at security and certification. c9a082bd-3369-49c2-868a-1ff60ca2e6fa Knowledge Transmission Improve knowledge transmission. _e33c2788-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c 7 Young People Digital technology enables new forms of educational instruction through improvements in engagement, interest, personalization, collaboration, and interactivity. Online learning can engage young people, personalize learning, improve learning for non-traditional students, facilitate social networking and collaboration, and provide new platforms for learning through interactive processes. Non-Traditional Students Gordon Freedman Our participant Gordon Freedman, president of the National Laboratory for Education Transformation, said that "we still are reliant on an institution to pass out a credential to hire someone." National Laboratory for Education Transformation Schools Yet despite the obvious opportunity for revitalizing education, there remain numerous barriers to the fulfillment of these objectives. Many schools remain structured around a schedule based on a 19th century agrarian society and a 20th century industrial model, and do not address the needs of a 21st century information-based economy. Educational Institutions Educational institutions are overly bureaucratic and too hierarchical, and poorly equipped to train students for newly emerging jobs. Often times, they do not engage students' interests or make the education process very relevant. We need to improve knowledge transmission through faster adoption of digital textbooks, more widespread use of creative commons licenses for instructional materials developed with taxpayer dollars, and policy changes that speed education innovation. Digital Textbooks Speed the movement from paper to digital textbooks in order to increase efficiency and keep teaching materials up-to-date. _e33c2850-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c 7.1 One issue facing contemporary schools is that they are labor intensive operations. For most elementary and secondary school districts, as well as institutions of higher education, employee salaries and benefits comprise more than half of the annual school budget. Some districts report that salaries and benefits total more than 70 percent of their overall budgets. High personnel costs limit technology innovation because the current business model of school systems makes it difficult to find funds to support digital initiatives. With a large proportion of school budgets going to personnel, there are few funds to support digital learning resources, digital textbooks, distance education, personalized learning, social media applications, mobile learning, or real-time assessment of students or teachers. One of the most pressing priorities is for school districts to speed the movement from paper to digital textbooks in order to increase efficiency and keep teaching materials up-to-date. The United States currently spends $7 billion a year on paper-based textbooks. These books are obsolete by the time they are published and lack interactive electronic and multi-media links that allow students to search for additional information. Yet, only five percent of American school textbooks today are digital. This reduces the benefits of the technology revolution in the education area. 687302d0-bc08-4ccf-9814-c5335afa48ef Licensing [Make] educational resources developed with taxpayer dollars [available] under a creative commons license. _a7ed6818-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 7.2 In an era of limited resources, educators must figure out how to do more with fewer financial resources. One action that would improve school efficiency and financing is to have educational resources developed with taxpayer dollars be licensed under a creative commons license that would improve accessibility to instructional materials. Budget circumstances require schools to get more efficient, boost productivity, and make do with fewer financial resources. While this poses obvious problems for school districts, it also creates the possibility of making changes in business operations that are innovative and transformational. e48610ef-812a-4266-8c7d-8150bf3f580f Personalized Learning Encourage adoption of personalized learning approaches. _a7ed6a52-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 7.3 Several policy changes are required in order to encourage the adoption of personalized learning approaches. Many secondary schools use the "Carnegie Unit" and colleges use the "Student Hour" to monitor student progress. Early in the 20th century, educators adopted these "time-based" approaches that mandated students must have at least 120 hours of classroom time over the course of a year to master particular subjects. In addition, four years was specified as the appropriate length of high school and bachelor's degrees in college. Most American schools continue to employ this framework to structure the curriculum and daily classroom schedule. 78648d73-6a88-4030-aa07-215971e24ee6 Mastery-Based Approach [Adopt] a "mastery-based" approach. _a7ed6c3c-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 7.4 David Friedman In general, according to our forum participant David Friedman, a law professor at Santa Clara University, "we need to move to a model based on ability, not credentials." Santa Clara University State of Louisiana States such as Louisiana have ended the seat-time requirement in favor of distance learning. Students who demonstrate mastery of educational materials are allowed to advance in virtual instruction based on their interest and ability. For some subjects, student performance has been higher than through conventional classes. In algebra courses, for example, students in virtual schools earned test scores of 710, compared to 688 for those attending traditional schools, controlling for relevant factors. The problem with time-based approaches is that they equate time spent with subject area knowledge. They assume that if students have enough face-time with instructors on a particular topic, most of them will meet minimum performance standards at the end of the course. However, this logic is flawed at both ends of the education spectrum. There are some students who need more time to master specific subjects and there are others who can learn the material in a shorter period of time. We need a "mastery-based" approach that works better than one based on time. Right now, education funding is determined by the "average daily attendance." This means that schools that incorporate online learning or have students who can master material in less time than required by seat-time measures, are penalized financially for these innovations. They end up with fewer budgetary resources even though their systems may make more efficient use of education dollars. 5b3af9f9-8f88-4b75-a42b-e566dccd60db Online Courses [Provide] access to online courses and [empower] every student to make decisions on taking those courses with a certified instructor based on their own needs. _a7ed6e3a-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 7.5 Students Certified Instructors This led a number of state officials to argue that every student should have access to an online course and be able to make decisions on taking those courses with a certified instructor based on their own needs. 44a209ee-186f-4e10-a234-2c9d75948143 Classroom Time Provide schools and universities with more flexibility in use of classroom time and not rely just on formalistic measures of student performance. _a7ed7088-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 7.6 Accreditation Agencies Schools Universities In addition, accreditation agencies should provide schools and universities with more flexibility in use of classroom time and not rely just on formalistic measures of student performance. Students can be promoted when they learn a subject as opposed to when they have sat a minimum number of hours in a seat. Such a system would need more flexible teacher roles, better financing of classroom technology, and regular evaluation and assessment so school officials know what works. Personalization makes sense only if there is documented evidence that students are learning the subject matter and making progress in various areas. ba06f701-d24e-4445-8ff3-074b123335b5 21st Century Training Train students for 21st century job skills. _a7ed7290-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 7.7 Students States We need to train students for 21st century job skills. In some cases, this means instruction for the jobs of tomorrow which may not even exist today. We should encourage instruction in data analytics, data visualization, mapping, video game design, computer science, programming, math, engineering, artificial intelligence, and machine-to-machine communications because these fields are in short supply currently and likely to be vital for the future. Robotics and additive manufacturing technologies are now affordable enough to be available in many districts. They represent an engaging, hands-on learning experience for students in a variety of age ranges. Many states forbid the meeting of science and math requirements through computer science classes even though programming skills are desperately needed in many different industries. c5424d8f-c7d6-4d82-9b9d-426b1dcd51b9 STEM Degrees Increase the number of students graduating with advanced degrees in science, technology, engineering, and math. _a7ed7498-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 7.8 Students We also need to increase the number of students graduating with advanced degrees in science, technology, engineering, and math. 371c44ac-838f-44c6-9932-89d90cda6af5 Merit Pay & Bonuses Provide merit pay and bonuses for secondary school STEM teachers. _a7ed772c-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 7.9 STEM Teachers Women Minorities We should provide merit pay and bonuses for secondary school STEM teachers in order to reward excellence and attract more people, including women and minorities, into STEM fields. 2c5e720a-6316-4b39-bdc5-a5f98843e8f6 Metrics [Develop] metrics assessing education innovation implementation and impact. _a7ed7952-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 7.10 Throughout each of these initiatives, we should have metrics assessing education innovation implementation and impact. We should determine how fast we are transitioning from paper to digital textbooks, leverage the use of creative commons licenses, and enforce changes in education policy and accreditation that encourage more innovative approaches to learning and achievement. 11b65c46-928b-48df-b9b8-3f456428e461 Technology Transfer & Commercialization Increase technology transfer and the commercialization of knowledge from universities and federal laboratories. _e33c2922-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c 8 Universities Federal Laboratories We need to increase technology transfer and the commercialization of knowledge from universities and federal laboratories so that public and private investments translate into jobs and economic activity as well as better health, security, and well-being. -- One of the most important policy questions about innovation is how the nation can extract the maximum social benefit from its investments in research and development. The absolute level of R&D investments in the U.S. is by far the largest among all industrialized nations, exceeding $402 billion. Private industry remains the major funder of research and development, contributing to 62 percent of the national total. The public sector is the second major investor in R&D, contributing about 31 percent of the total. The commitment of government is even higher when looking only at research; in fact, 53 percent of the $40 billion invested in basic science is funded with tax-dollars. Productivity, Jobs & Economic Activity Create the environment where private and public investments in innovation are translated into productivity gains, jobs, and economic activity. _e33c29fe-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c 8.1 This picture reveals a double objective for government. First, the government must create the environment where private and public investments in innovation are translated into productivity gains, jobs, and economic activity. 2a749711-fcd8-48d4-8aa1-c26a56a246d2 Public Interest Make public R&D investments in the public interest. _a7ed7b64-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 8.2 Second, public R&D investments must be made in the public interest so that they improve public health, strengthen national security, and raise standards of living across all socioeconomic strata. In most circumstances, these two goals are one and the same. Still, they could sometimes be at odds and, when this happens, the challenge for government is to align them. cc4173e4-279d-441d-9377-c337da50e967 Federal Research Public Access Act [Enact] the Federal Research Public Access Act. _a7ed7de4-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 8.3 Commercialization and dissemination of publicly funded research are two domains where fostering innovation in the interest of the two government objectives -- promoting economic activity and advancing the public interest -- may conflict. The protection of intellectual property (patents and copyrights) introduces the profit incentive to inventive activity, but this is a rather ineffective incentive if the innovator does not or cannot pursue profit. That is precisely the case of public R&D because the general expectation is that new knowledge created with taxpayers' money may be made available to taxpayers at minimum cost. If new knowledge is inexpensively disseminated, profit-seeking enterprises will not seek its commercialization. The expectation of a wide dissemination of public research has inspired a bill that is currently being considered in Congress. We should support the Federal Research Public Access Act (HR4004, S2096) that mandates public dissemination of federally funded research within six months of publication (for agencies with extramural funding exceeding $100 million). The bill proposes an exclusion of classified research, books from which authors receive a royalty, and patentable discoveries. If some accommodation can be made to compensate for revenue lost by for-profit publishers of academic journals, we believe that this bill is consistent with the goal of pursuing widespread dissemination of the knowledge funded with public monies. 2f97a699-807c-435c-b16f-744cf9699ee1 Bayh-Dole Ac Amend the Bayh-Dole Act to promote the formation of competitive markets. _a7ed801e-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 8.4 Looking into policy changes for the immediate future, it is important to build upon the successes of Bayh-Dole in fostering the translation of publicly funded research into economic activity. Nevertheless, to achieve the second objective of directing public research investments into the public interest, Congress should amend Bayh-Dole to promote the formation of competitive as opposed to monopolistic markets. A step in that direction is for the letter of the law to explicitly encourage the use of non-exclusive licenses. Without banning the use of exclusive licenses, an explicit government preference for non-exclusive licenses would increase the power of federal agencies to promote wider use of patents, regulate monopolistic practices with the products that result from them, and shift the weight-of-proof from the bureaucracy to the licensees to justify an exclusive patent. 6ce9c20f-2b7c-4743-a966-42c3c1dafb96 Executive Order Make some changes by Executive Order. _a7ed835c-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 8.5 President of the United States Some changes could be made by Executive Order. Federal laboratories make a significant contribution to research-based innovation and could be directed to initiate "responsible licensing programs" modeled after similar programs tested at universities. These programs structure licensing contracts in creative manners, for instance, assigning exclusive licenses within specified jurisdictions, out of which non-exclusive licenses are allowed (e.g. an exclusive license could apply for OECD countries, while companies in developing countries can have it on non- exclusive basis). A licensing contract may also have a conditional exclusivity clause, where exclusivity expires if the licensee company does not commercialize the product in a manner consistent with wide dissemination of the patented product and certain agreed upon uses. 075118d6-9a3a-4a18-a803-30efcc1f8b8f Competititve Modes Foster competitive modes of innovation. _a7ed8604-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 8.6 Federal Aenciies Agencies can also play a role in fostering competitive modes of innovation. Federal agencies may in various forms introduce incentives for the formation of patent pools, by increasing the scoring of a grant proposal that lays out a plan for patented discoveries to be part of an existing patent pool, or require from all grantees of specified grant-purses to agree to patent discoveries and assign them to a patent pool. The joint ownership of a patent portfolio should address several concerns with the current regime. First, legal analysts have feared that patenting research tools may reduce the collective ability to innovate as scientists make regular use of tools developed by their peers. Second, licensing contracts must be negotiated in the best interest of all the pool's partners, increasing the likelihood that patents will be used to create competitive markets of innovation rather than strengthening monopolies. f6da11d5-8910-4816-b564-e66f28ba45e6 Metrics [Develop] better metrics for measuring commercialization and technology transfer. _a7ed8848-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 8.7 Schools Schools need better metrics for measuring commercialization and technology transfer. Right now, there is too much focus on numbers of patents and startups without determining which products make it to the marketplace and what type of social and economic impact they have. We would be in a stronger position to address innovation roadblocks if we had more complete data on commercialization. 48b2fe79-f5b3-4611-9188-3a1e063d582c Cross-Border Laws Harmonize cross-border laws to promote global innovation and freedom of expression. _e33c2ada-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c 9 We should harmonize cross-border laws to promote global innovation and freedom of expression. -- The lack of legal uniformity across national borders creates problems for innovation policy. Many countries have different laws on cloud computing, privacy, data retention, security processes, and personnel training. It is hard to get the full benefits of an innovation economy when rules are inconsistent or contradictory. Sometimes, countries require data disclosure even if the cloud data center is not located within their national boundaries. Transaction Rules Harmonize rules on cross-border transactions. _e33c2bac-3201-11e2-9eab-e295dc04475c 9.1 Rules on cross-border transactions should be harmonized in order to facilitate innovation and get the greatest economies of scale from new technology. We need international agreements harmonizing national rules so that the current "Tower of Babel" doesn't undermine fiscal efficiencies or utilization of digital platforms. A World Economic Forum study ranked collaboration with other governments to reduce the complexity of compliance requirements as the most important priority. Leaders in a number of different countries see cross-border differences as problematic and in need of resolution. 2d8d80fe-6223-4bab-a9cb-2a8c33689844 Cloud Data Storage Discourage requirements that cloud data be stored within geographic boundaries. _a7ed8a96-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 9.2 We should discourage U.S. government units from requiring that cloud data be stored within their own geographic boundaries or other nations from imposing those requirements. This undermines the benefits of cloud computing and imposes unnecessary constraints on cross-border information flows and trade agreements. Having to maintain data storage facilities in particular countries encourages digital protectionism and harms international trade. bab2703a-c720-4419-a74d-064ea3a8d36f Freedom of Expression Encourage freedom of expression in the digital world. _a7ed8d5c-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 9.3 Countries Private Companies Countries and private companies should encourage freedom of expression in the digital world. Censorship or blocking sites discourages the free flow of data, goods, and services across counties. If public or private sector organizations make requests to remove Internet content or censor usage, Internet service providers should publicize this situation by listing such requests on their websites. This will let consumers know about these types of requests and hopefully deter authorities from engaging in this kind of behavior. 64a6eed5-5f79-4a26-9c63-c75c17fd9ed1 Data Storage Rules, Trade Agreements & Freedom of Expression Compile information on data storage rules across national boundaries, how trade agreements further or restrict innovation, and the manner in which various countries deal with digital freedom of expression issues. _a7ed8fbe-3918-11e2-9d80-855f1803c70b 9.4 We should compile information on data storage rules across national boundaries, how trade agreements further or restrict innovation, and the manner in which various countries deal with digital freedom of expression issues. By having more complete metrics and data analytics, we would be in a stronger position to address roadblocks and encourage innovation around the world. 97ce1c78-c928-4529-bd62-d7bb8ed1a7fd 2012-11-28 http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2012/11/13 innovation technology west friedman valdivia/innovationbased economy.pdf Owen Ambur Owen.Ambur@verizon.net Submit error.