Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency for the District of Columbia Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency for the District of Columbia CSOSA _aa768db8-97e4-4cf2-b9af-a50c54647c0c 821b9021-e27c-4366-adf0-22fa12bc8fb8 To increase public safety, prevent crime, reduce recidivism, and support the fair administration of justice in close collaboration with the community we serve. _6bb56281-02e7-4a6b-baee-e213b04ca72f Crime Prevention Prevent the population supervised by CSOSA from engaging in criminal activity by establishing strict accountability and dramatically increasing the number of offenders who successfully reintegrate into society. _88eaf70d-e279-4c3a-a051-0de86ad0991b I If CSOSA is completely successful, offenders and defendants under our supervision will commit far fewer crimes. CSOSA’s program would have a significant impact on public safety by reducing crime. Close Supervision Defendants and offenders will be supervised and/or monitored at a level appropriate to their risk classification, so that conditions of release may be enforced, swift and certain consequences imposed for violation of those conditions, and incentives applied to improve compliance. _65974993-ce81-490b-94ec-fe645c865a7c 1.1 CSOSA dedicates approximately 55 percent of its annual resources to activities in this area, including: - Surveillance drug testing; - Supervision contacts (office visits, phone contacts, and home or work visits); - Initial case planning with pre-parole offenders residing in Federal Bureau of Prisons Halfway Houses; - Detecting and sanctioning non-compliant behavior, according to CSOSA’s sanctions matrix (Accountability Contract) as guidance; - Monitoring compliance with specific interventions or conditions imposed by the court or U.S. Parole Commission (e.g., treatment, community service, mental health care, etc.); - Referral to programs and services as appropriate. Since its creation in 1997, CSOSA has been committed to implementing a community-based approach to supervision, taking proven best practices and making them a reality in the District of Columbia. Prior to the enactment of the Revitalization Act, supervision officers handled staggering caseloads from behind their desks downtown, providing only minimal levels of contact to most offenders. Prior to the enactment of the Revitalization Act, the average supervision caseload in probation and parole was 180-200 high-risk offenders to every supervision officer. The infusion of significant resources into CSOSA has enabled caseloads to be reduced to the current average of 56 general supervision offenders per officer, which is still somewhat higher than the target of 50, but much improved from past levels. Specialized high-risk caseloads (mental health and sex offender) are lower, averaging 44 offenders per officer. CSOSA also adopted a new deployment structure for its officers, abolishing the old designations of Probation and Parole Officers and creating the position of Community Supervision Officer for line staff. Community Supervision Officers handle both parole and probation cases and increasingly spend their time in District neighborhoods, performing supervision functions where offenders live and work. CSOSA has established a total of six field units, and hopes to add a seventh in FY 2004. Re-Entry of Parolees into the Community For a number of years prior to June of 1998, the District of Columbia did not uniformly transition inmates to parole by placing them in community corrections centers, or halfway houses. This practices was contrary to standard practice in the entire federal system and in most states. Often, individuals who had been incarcerated at Lorton for years were simply transported by bus on their parole date to the D.C. Jail in Southeast Washington, and released to the street with instructions to report to a parole officer downtown. Not surprisingly, without a system of community supports and supervision, many offenders resumed the cycle of crime and drug use. In May 1998, the practice of transitioning parolees through halfway houses was reinstituted through a Memorandum of Understanding between CSOSA, the D.C. Corrections Trustee, the U.S. Parole Commission, and the D.C. Department of Corrections. Since this practice has resumed, inmates who are granted parole have been transitioned back into the community through halfway houses, where they spend a final portion of their sentence (not to exceed ten percent of the total sentence). In July of 1998, the agency started assigning Community Supervision Officers to work with halfway house residents. The Transitional Intervention for Parole Supervision (TIPS) Program provides counseling services, release planning, and service referrals to the pre-parole population in order to reduce the probability of continued criminal behavior and provide for a smoother transition back into the community. During this program, the offender and the TIPS officer develop an initial supervision plan that remains in effect for the first 90 days following release, while the offender becomes accustomed to general supervision. The TIPS program carries the philosophy that each prospective parolee’s individual history and evolution of criminality or addiction must be assessed to develop an effective transitional and treatment plan tailored to his or her specific risks and needs. Pre-parolees must comply with conditions of drug testing, treatment and counseling, and frequent reporting. The program carries a zero tolerance policy for alcohol and other drugs, and pre-parolees who test positive for alcohol and/or illegal substances are returned to institutional custody immediately. In addition, there is strict case management, including tracking, monitoring, regular reporting, random breathalyzer tests, counseling, and a urinalysis twice a week. The program also provides services such as comprehensive needs assessment, job placement, referral to vocational and educational programming, mentoring, housing release planning, and alcohol and substance abuse education along with a wide range of treatment resources. Over the past several years, CSOSA has made great progress in establishing a more effective supervision model. However, the proof of whether these resources are effective is in the outcomes: Does our program have an impact on public safety in the District of Columbia? CSOSA’s goals in this area therefore focus on the most meaningful outcomes: rearrest, the imposition of sanctions, and technical violations. Meeting these goals will contribute to a significant reduction in recidivism and a significant increase in public safety. General Goal: - CSOSA will decrease the proportion of the population under supervision that is rearrested (from a baseline measurement established in FY 2002). Rearrest is a commonly accepted indicator of criminal activity within the supervised population. Although in itself rearrest does not constitute recidivism, it is a useful predictor of recidivism. If offenders are following their case plans—complying with their conditions of release, maintaining employment, and refraining from drug use—their chances of rearrest should be reduced dramatically. While CSOSA cannot eliminate rearrest, successful implementation of its program should reduce it. Over the past several years, CSOSA has been working to establish baseline rearrest rates for the probation and parole populations. Little data exists on rearrest prior to CSOSA’s establishment, and until recently tracking rearrest was a labor-intensive manual process. Through the implementation of SMART, CSOSA’s automated case management system, and linkage with Metropolitan Police Department computer systems, tracking rearrest has become much easier and more reliable. Baseline measurements have been established. Means and Strategies. The achievement of this goal depends on CSOSA’s continued implementation of a supervision model that stresses accountability and close monitoring. A number of operational strategies directly contribute to this goal: reduction in caseload, placement of officers in the community, partnership with the Metropolitan Police Department, and regular reassessment of risk. The deployment of additional Community Supervision Officer positions received in FY 2003 will bring the agency’s general supervision caseload to the target ratio of 50 cases per officer and will directly contribute to this goal. General Goal: - CSOSA will increase the percentage of recorded violations for which a timely sanction is imposed and implemented (from a baseline measurement established in FY 2004). A system for addressing non-compliant behavior is at the heart of CSOSA’s program model. Research has demonstrated the effectiveness of graduated sanctions in both supervision and treatment. Offenders whose behavior is closely monitored, and whose non-compliance is subject to swift and certain consequences, are more likely to follow with their case plans and avoid criminal activity. Therefore, CSOSA has developed, and is seeking to expand, a range of sanctions up to and including residential placement. By consistently implementing these sanctions, we believe we can contain more offenders safely within the community, reducing the instances in which revocation for technical violation becomes necessary—although revocation must always be presented as the ultimate sanction. CSOSA’s sanctions are defined by policy and captured within a sanctions matrix, or Accountability Contract. This document defines the consequences for non-compliant behavior in clear, certain language. The offender signs the contract, and it becomes part of the case plan. Sanctions currently include such measures as: officer reprimand, increased drug testing, increased supervision contacts, attendance at a sanctions group, increase in supervision level, and residential placement. When CSOSA’s Re-Entry and Sanctions Center is fully operational, our capacity to impose residential sanctions will be significantly increased. Prior to the implementation of automated case management, CSOSA had no reliable mechanism to track the recording of violations and imposition of sanctions. The case management system is currently being modified to capture the disposition of each recorded technical violation, including the date, duration, nature, and success of the sanction. This information is essential in the preparation of Alleged Violation Reports. In formulating this goal, CSOSA chose to emphasize the appropriateness of the sanction and timeliness of its imposition rather than the number of recorded sanctions. To be effective, a sanction must be both calibrated to the seriousness of the behavior and executed quickly and reliably. CSOSA does not seek to decrease the number of recorded violations or sanctions. Means and Strategies. This goal is dependent on full implementation and consistent enforcement of the Accountability Contract, as well as continued availability of residential sanctions for more severe violations. In addition, supervision officers must receive adequate training in the imposition of sanctions, and whether sanctions are imposed in a timely manner must be tracked through the automated case management system. General Goal: - CSOSA will decrease the proportion of the population who receive three or more violations from separate incidents in a single year (from a baseline measurement established in FY 2004). While violations are an expected part of most offenders’ supervision, if CSOSA’s program model is succeeding, the proportion of the population who violate multiple times each year should decrease. More offenders should be adhering to their case plans, succeeding in their program placements—in short, not engaging in the behaviors that constitute violations. Therefore, the proportion of the population that violates multiple times in any given year should decrease. As noted above, CSOSA does not seek to reduce the number of recorded violations, but rather the proportion of the population who violate repeatedly in a given year. It should be noted that CSOSA will count each separate incident, not each separate violation resulting from a single incident. A single incident may result in multiple violations—an offender may miss a drug test and fail to report for an office visit, for example, because he has smoked marijuana. That would constitute two violations (the missed test and the missed office visit) but one incident. Means and Strategies. Timely detection of non-compliant behavior and equally timely imposition of appropriate sanctions are essential to achieving this goal. To that end, caseload ratios must remain low enough for officers to monitor offenders closely and respond quickly to signs of trouble. General Goal: - CSOSA and the U.S. Parole Commission will develop standards for the format and content of Alleged Violation Reports (AVRs) by the end of FY 2004, and staff will receive training in these standards by the end of FY 2005. CSOSA’s Community Supervision Officers provide documentation of alleged violations to the U.S. Parole Commission, who then determine whether the offender’s release status should be revoked and the offender returned to incarceration. These reports must be complete, comprehensive, and appropriately documented. They must also contain sufficient evidence that the office has attempted to address the offender’s non-compliance through sanctions, and that revocation is being sought either because other strategies have failed or because the violation is so serious that no other strategy is appropriate. CSOSA and the U.S. Parole Commission are collaborating on joint staff training and joint drafting of standards for these reports. In addition, CSOSA’s case management system will incorporate an AVR module by the end of FY 2003. This module will automate production of the report and minimize the possibility of omissions. Means and Strategies. This goal will be achieved primarily through collaborative effort, deployment of the automated AVR module, and staff training. This goal must be achieved to enable CSOSA to shift its focus to ensuring that revocation is requested appropriately. b161d7dc-5446-442e-a772-763705695bdc eadfcd14-18df-4644-a8a9-876bf2c320ab Treatment and Support Services Make treatment and support services available to defendants and offenders to meet their assessed needs, to increase the likelihood of successful reintegration to the community, and to interrupt the cycle of substance abuse and crime. _28ee1643-9250-4682-a8d5-7416e6c11816 1.2 CSOSA dedicates approximately 15 percent of its annual resources to activities in this area, including: - Assessment for, and placement in, appropriate substance abuse treatment, including detoxification, residential, transitional, and outpatient programming; - Monitoring and quality assurance of contracted treatment services; - Pre- and post-treatment drug testing; - Placement in court-ordered non-substance abuse treatment, including sex offender and domestic violence programming; - Operation of a system of Learning Labs, providing basic adult education, GED preparation, and vocational assistance. Long-term success in reducing recidivism among the defendant and offender population depends upon two key factors: 1) identifying and treating drug use and other social problems among this population; and 2) establishing swift and certain consequences for individuals under supervision who fail to comply with the conditions of their release. Unless both conditions are achieved, the cycle of drugs and crime cannot be interrupted. The supervision strategies CSOSA has put in place have proven effective in reducing drug-related crime. Sanctions-based treatment has proven to be an effective tool in changing behavior. Research performed by the Washington/ Baltimore High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) project has found that the length of time in treatment contributes to reductions in arrests, drug use and technical violations. This study found that involvement in a drug treatment program with regular drug testing and immediate sanctions for violations resulted in a 70 percent reduction in recidivism 12 months following completion of the program. Since 1993, treatment services available for the criminal justice population have diminished dramatically. The number of detoxification beds available through the D.C. Addiction Prevention and Recovery Administration between 1993 and 1999 decreased from 105 to 50, a 52 percent reduction. During the same period, the number of residential treatment slots decreased by 60 percent from 379 to 153. The number of outpatient treatment slots fell 17 percent from 1,207 to 999. Further, individuals under supervision compete with the general public for limited treatment capacity. Because more than 70 percent of offenders under supervision report a drug problem, and because there is a proven nexus between drug abuse and crime, reducing substance abuse is one of CSOSA’s highest priorities. While drug testing has increased greatly, and while surveillance has a deterrent effect on the casual user, most offenders have more serious substance abuse problems. The agency has received substantial resources to make treatment available to an unprecedented number of defendants and offenders under supervision. Treatment placements increased dramatically between FY 1999 and FY 2002, and continued funding has enabled us to maintain approximately 1,100 treatment placements per year. CSOSA has developed contracts with a range of treatment providers for services ranging from hospital detox to outpatient treatment. In addition, CSOSA has developed in-house treatment expertise to provide clinical assessment and recommend the most appropriate placement. “Treatment” also encompasses court-ordered sex offender treatment, mental health assessment and referral, and domestic violence programs. Learning Labs CSOSA has established a range of support programs to help defendants and offenders address other problems in their lives. The CSOSA Learning Labs, located at the field offices, provide self-paced computer-assisted adult literacy and GED programming, English as a Second Language classes, and vocational placement assistance. Trained staff offer educational and vocational testing and help the offender/defendant to negotiate the stressful process of finding and maintaining employment. The Learning Labs represent an important collaboration between CSOSA, other government agencies, and neighborhood groups. The original Learning Lab at St. Luke Center was established in part with a grant from the Department of Justice’s Weed and Seed program, and a local minority-owned business, Empowerment Technology, equipped and networked the site for computer-based learning. Collaboration with Project Bridges, a consortium of churches in the District and Maryland organized to support and strengthen families, reinforced these opportunities by recruiting volunteer mentors. This type of active community involvement continues to be essential to the Learning Lab initiative. General Goal: - CSOSA will increase the proportion of offenders placed in residential substance abuse treatment who satisfactorily complete the program (from a baseline measurement established in FY 2003). While some benefit can be derived from any treatment experience—even if the offender does not complete the program—CSOSA has adopted this goal to ensure that the offender’s probability of completing treatment is among the criteria used in determining whether he or she should be placed. While CSOSA’s treatment resources have increased considerably, the demand for treatment continues to exceed availability. Therefore, placement in treatment should be at least partially contingent on the offender’s likelihood to complete the program and thereby derive maximum benefit from the treatment experience. This goal has been limited to residential treatment in order to take into account that relapse, which is most often experienced during the outpatient portion of the treatment continuum, is a necessary part of the treatment experience. An offender may fail to complete an outpatient placement several times, each time developing a better sense of his or her personal relapse cycle. Such cycles are fairly common and should not constitute a treatment failure. Similarly, some outpatient programs do not have a distinct termination, but are “maintenance” programs that help the offender transition from inpatient treatment to community-based support (such as a twelve-step or faith-based program). Means and Strategies. The achievement of this goal will depend on several factors. First, a solid definition of treatment success must be developed. What really constitutes a successful completion—the vendor’s program structure or the benefit the offender derived from treatment? Second, CSOSA’s process of assessing and placing offenders in treatment must be structured to take both motivation and need into account. Third, offenders for whom treatment is a condition of release must be taken into account. The outcome of mandatory treatment may be different from that of voluntary treatment. CSOSA has significant work ahead in determining how, and by what criteria, to measure treatment success. General Goal: - CSOSA will reduce drug use among offenders who complete a residential treatment program, as measured by positive urine tests before and after treatment (from a baseline measurement established in FY 2004). CSOSA is just beginning to measure the effectiveness of treatment. The most reliable indicator of treatment effectiveness is drug test results. A baseline measurement of the level of negative tests post-completion should be available in FY 2004. This goal is confined to offenders who satisfactorily complete residential treatment due to the nature of outpatient treatment, as discussed above. It is too early to predict the level of reduction in positive drug tests that can be sustained. However, CSOSA is committed to measuring the effectiveness of treatment and continuing to make improvements in this area. Means and Strategies. Evaluation of treatment effectiveness is a high priority at CSOSA. Research and Evaluation staff are in the process of designing protocols to determine how both short-term and long-term treatment success should be measured. While evaluation design is a critical component of achieving this goal, the development and provision of adequate aftercare services are even more important for treatment success to be maintained over time. In the coming years, CSOSA intends to explore whether more treatment resources should be allocated to aftercare, or whether other options, including peer support, twelve-step programs, and faith-based groups, can be successfully implemented without decreasing the number of treatment placements. General Goal: - CSOSA will decrease the proportion of offenders under supervision who are revoked to incarceration for substance abuse violations (from a baseline measurement established in FY 2004). The most important measure of treatment success or failure is whether the offender returns to incarceration due to repeated substance abuse violations. In such cases, the combined elements of community supervision—surveillance, sanctions, and treatment—have proven ineffective in managing the offender’s substance abuse behavior. The offender’s substance abuse renders him or her unable to function in the community. There is often no choice but to return the offender to incarceration. CSOSA is committed to reducing the number of such cases. Effective assessment—particularly the type of programming that will be provided in the expanded Reentry and Sanctions Center—combined with treatment, supervision, sanctions, and outpatient support, should result in an increasing proportion of these high-risk offenders defeating their drug use. Means and Strategies. Full implementation of the Reentry and Sanctions Center is essential to achieving this goal. The Reentry and Sanctions Center will provide both a key pre-treatment assessment and a meaningful residential sanction for high-risk offenders. In addition, this goal also requires timely imposition of sanctions for the initial substance abuse violations, as well as timely referral for treatment. While some revocations for substance abuse violations are inevitable, these actions can be reduced through sanctions and treatment. General Goal: - CSOSA will increase the proportion of offenders who, after completing programming in CSOSA’s Learning Labs, achieve a significant increase in education level (from a baseline measurement established in FY 2004). Learning Lab programming is intended to produce meaningful increases in participants’ education levels. The majority of offenders under CSOSA supervision do not possess a high school diploma, and many function at a fifth grade level. Improving offenders’ education levels is a vital part of successful community reintegration. CSOSA is beginning to capture data on offenders’ functional level as part of the initial Learning Lab assessment. Comparable post-tests are also being initiated to measure the offender’s accomplishments. A baseline for achievement should be established by FY 2004. Means and Strategies. This goal will be achieved through continued implementation of the Learning Lab program and tracking of participants’ success. An enhancement to the case management system is under development to capture this information. Over the period covered by this plan, “significant increase” will be defined as a quantifiable increase in functioning according to a standardized literacy or educational achievement test. General Goal: - CSOSA will increase the proportion of offenders referred to Learning Labs who obtain employment through the Learning Lab (from a baseline measurement established in FY 2004). CSOSA is seeking to expand job opportunities available through the Learning Lab so that offenders can receive both assistance with the job application process and viable job leads. To achieve this goal, CSOSA will need to have both a range of jobs available and an effective process for placing offenders in those jobs. The Learning Lab network has been growing, putting staff and procedures in place and expanding the number of sites. Tracking of offenders placed in jobs through the Learning Labs began in FY 2002, and the SMART system will incorporate a Learning Lab module by the end of FY 2003. By the end of FY 2004, a baseline measurement of the rate of offender placement should be established. Means and Strategies. Achievement of this goal depends on continued success in developing employment resources through partnership with the public and private sectors. Such partnerships will result in increased employment opportunities for offenders under supervision. CSOSA is working with the D.C. Department of Employment Services and a number of potential employers to increase the number of placements that can be made through the Learning Labs. e6734d60-eec0-4f72-9b58-726accd879d1 da0c1ac8-e30e-40aa-92e3-49c0739eb890 Community Partnerships Pursue partnerships with law enforcement, government, and community entities to increase public awareness of agency activities, promote cooperative activities with the police in monitoring offenders, and increase the level of support services available to offenders and defendants. _37bad9e9-bb3d-499f-98bd-13e652194ffe 1.3 CSOSA dedicates approximately 5 percent of its annual resources to activities in this area, including: - Partnership with the Metropolitan Police Department in each of the city’s 83 Police Service Areas; - Maintenance and growth of Community Justice Advisory Networks in each of the city’s eight Police Districts; - Development of cooperative agreements and Memorandums of Understanding with government, non-profit, and private entities to increase opportunities available to offenders in the areas of community service, job placement, and support programs. CSOSA’s program model focuses on integrating the functions of offender supervision into the overall community. The results we seek depend in part on cooperation from, and effective collaboration with, our partners—in the justice system, in the community, and in government. We have made significant progress in establishing meaningful partnerships since our founding, and we are now at the point where we can commit to goals that express the value and effectiveness of these relationships. CSOSA does not view “cross-cutting” programs as an afterthought to our operations. They are essential to our success. To that end, we are involved in a number of innovative partnerships and interagency initiatives to increase both the range of services available to offenders and the network of accountability that prevents crime. CSOSA’s goal is to involve the community in supervision—not as a substitute for the officer’s work, but as a long-term addition to the offender’s life. If the offender comes to believe that the community is invested in his or her success, then he or she becomes invested in the community’s welfare and understands the consequences of crime. General Goal: - CSOSA will increase the level of collaborative supervision activities that occur in partnership with the Metropolitan Police Department (from a baseline measurement established in FY 2004). CSOSA now has functioning partnerships in all 83 Police Service Areas. Each of these partnerships provides a venue for collaborative supervision. This collaboration takes three forms: joint orientation of offenders entering supervision, presentation of high-risk cases to police officers in the offender’s home Police Service Area, and joint accountability tours (home/work site visits) between police officers and Community Supervision Officers. Each activity is important to increasing police awareness of, and participation in, community supervision. Offenders who are known and monitored by the police are less likely to engage in criminal activity and more likely to have at-risk behavior noticed and interrupted before criminal activity results. To ensure that our partnership with MPD continues to grow, CSOSA is committed to increasing the level of partnership activities by 10 percent each year over the FY 2004 baseline. We are incorporating an automated tracking capability into SMART in FY 2003 and should establish baseline measurements for each type of activity in FY 2004. Means and Strategies. Maintaining the target caseload of approximately 50 offenders per supervision officer is essential to achieving this goal. Joint supervision activities with MPD are a time-intensive but important aspect of case management. Community Supervision Officers must have sufficient time to complete these activities. Moreover, these activities must be entered into the case record and tracked within the automated case management system. General Goal: - CSOSA will increase the number of cooperative agreements or Memorandums of Understanding with government, non-profit, faith-based, or private entities to provide opportunities for offenders to fulfill community service requirements (from a baseline established in FY 2003). One important result of partnerships is the community’s acceptance of offenders’ skills and labor. Agreements with outside entities—other government agencies, non-profit groups, faith-based groups, or private businesses—allow offenders to fulfill their requirements for community service. In addition to meeting court-imposed requirements, these opportunities provide work experience and give the offender a chance to interact with the community in a positive way. CSOSA is committed to increasing each year the number of organizations committed to providing these opportunities, and to maintaining an appropriate level of community service placements so that offenders with a community service requirement can fulfill it in a timely manner. Means and Strategies. CSOSA’s Community Justice Programs division works to develop opportunities for offenders to fulfill their community services requirements. By demonstrating the benefit to the community and the cost-effectiveness of participating in the program, CSOSA can increase the number of community service slots that are available. General Goal: - CSOSA will increase the number of cooperative agreements or Memorandums of Understanding with government, non-profit, faith-based, or private entities to provide employment, training, or support programs for offenders (from a baseline established in FY 2003). In addition to community service opportunities, CSOSA’s partnerships result in increased employment, training, and support programming for offenders under supervision. CSOSA is committed to continuing to grow these resources, which are an invaluable complement to supervision. These resources create links between the offender and his or her community. Participation in a non-profit organization’s training program or a faith institution’s substance abuse support group will assist the offender in forming permanent, positive relationships and developing positive ways to spend time. Such connections are key to the offender’s long-term success. Means and Strategies. CSOSA is working to expand its Faith/Community Partnership activities to enable offenders to access job training, transitional housing, and other types of support programs offered by area faith institutions. Program capacity and demand from non-criminal justice participants may affect our ability to achieve this goal. a0afdc41-2730-4bbc-a9c2-d688f93aba79 6c8f8f59-4c28-4243-8a1b-68ca2c652be6 Release Conditions and Disposition of Cases Support the fair administration of justice by providing accurate information and meaningful recommendations to criminal justice decision-makers to help them in determining the appropriate release conditions and/or disposition of cases. _54eae0b6-78fa-4eaf-8de2-2f837829925b II In addition to offender supervision, CSOSA has an important responsibility to provide information and recommendations to the court, the U.S. Parole Commission, and other criminal justice agencies. This information should be timely, complete, and of the highest quality. In that way, CSOSA can increase public confidence in the justice system. Risk and Needs Assessment Provide timely, accurate, and meaningful assessments and recommendations to criminal justice decisionmakers. _f29d253f-50b5-4ee6-93f9-b8c64884d3b4 2.1 In addition, defendants and offenders under CSOSA’s supervision will be assessed to determine their level of risk to the community and their need for the programs and services CSOSA provides. CSOSA dedicates approximately 25 percent of its annual resources to activities in this area, including: - Risk screening using the CSOSA Screener; - Needs assessment using a variety of instruments (a revised instrument that integrates needs assessment with risk is currently under development); - Initial drug testing; - Preparation of the case plan; - Review at appropriate intervals of the risk assessment, needs assessment, and case plan; - Preparation of Presentence Investigations. Risk and needs assessment is the basis of case management. If the supervision officer is aware of the offender’s risk to the community, he or she can structure supervision to minimize that risk. Likewise, if the officer is aware of the offender’s programmatic needs, he or she can refer the offender to appropriate interventions. For the offenders CSOSA supervises, risk and needs assessment often begins prior to the start of supervision. CSOSA prepares Presentence Investigations for the D.C. Superior Court. These documents provide comprehensive criminal and social histories and include sentencing recommendations. Once the offender enters supervision, CSOSA administers its Risk Screener to determine the appropriate supervision level. The risk assessment process is currently being expanded to include a comprehensive needs assessment. General Goal: - CSOSA will improve its case planning process to incorporate risk and needs assessment, resulting in a case plan for each offender that identifies specific supervision requirements and intervention strategies. One of CSOSA’s major operational initiatives has been to implement appropriate and comprehensive assessment of defendants and offenders throughout the District’s correctional system. Appropriate assessment is a critical foundation for effective case management. The results of the assessment process drive the development of the treatment plan and outline conditions that will hold the defendant or offender accountable for his/her behavior while on release. CSOSA compiled a scientific review team and tasked this group with developing a comprehensive classification system. The team included practitioner and scientific experts in the areas of mental health, substance abuse, and criminality, as well as representatives from the National Institute of Corrections and the National Institute of Justice. The group developed the classification process and completed the instrument used during the first stage of the process. After the development of the instrument, definitions and procedures for its use, CSOSA implemented the screener throughout the Community Supervision Program. The screener was used on all new cases that entered probation or parole supervision on or after February 28, 2000. The Bureau of Governmental Research at the University of Maryland conducted an initial construction study to assess the predictive value of the screener. The second phase of the classification process is the assessment of needs. CSOSA is developing an instrument to assess the level of needs for offenders in the District Columbia. This instrument will assess offenders in a variety of areas (e.g., substance abuse, violence/aggression, vocational needs, life skills needs and interpersonal relationships). As CSOSA has developed its program, specific interventions such as substance abuse treatment, vocational education, faith-based mentoring, and other services have become increasingly available to assist the offender population. These services will be integrated into the needs assessment instrument, so that the assessment leads to specific strategies that can be used to assist each offender in overcoming the problems and deficits that affect his or her ability to make life changes. These program services will be combined with risk assessment to develop a supervision plan for the offender, outlining both the behavioral conditions to which he or she must adhere and the services he or she needs to access. CSOSA’s goal is therefore to complete the risk and needs assessment process it has begun, refining and expanding it into a comprehensive case planning mechanism that is an integral part of supervision. The risk and needs assessment and the case plan must be completed early enough in the supervision process to affect decision-making. The case plan must address both supervision (supervision contacts, drug testing, etc.) and programmatic issues (treatment, education, social issues, family issues, etc.) and be updated periodically to respond to changes in the offender’s behavior or situation. In addition, the risk and needs assessment tool will be validated on an ongoing basis to ensure that it is providing appropriate diagnostic results and treatment recommendations. Means and Strategies. As discussed above, CSOSA is now developing and will soon implement a needs assessment instrument. This instrument will be tested and validated in the coming years. In addition, the agency’s case management system will track whether initial assessment and updates are performed within timeframes set by policy. It is not expected that any additional resources will be required to achieve this goal. General Goal: - CSOSA will improve its Presentence Investigation Reports, as determined by timely submission and user satisfaction, each year over the next five years (from a baseline measurement established in FY 2004). In addition to risk and needs assessment of the supervised population, CSOSA staff prepare over three thousand Presentence Investigations every year for offenders sentenced in the D.C. Superior Court. These investigations provide important criminal background and social history information to the sentencing judge, and include a sentencing recommendation. Particularly in cases that do not go to trial, where the judge has little opportunity to learn the defendant’s history, these reports are critical to the judge’s ability to impose an appropriate sentence. Presentence Investigations are also used by the Federal Bureau of Prisons in determining institutional placement and, in some cases, by the U.S. Parole Commission (USPC) in formulating parole conditions. They become an important part of the offender’s record and a primary source of background information for staff who must make decisions about the offender. Case audits have revealed that over 90 percent of these reports are submitted on time, but additional effort is required to assess the quality and usefulness of the finished document. To that end, CSOSA has adopted a general goal of increasing user satisfaction with the document, as determined by user reports and ongoing review. Means and Strategies. Since its inception, CSOSA has emphasized the importance of the presentence investigation as a reference document that follows the offender throughout his time in the criminal justice system. It is the primary source of information about the offender’s criminal history, social history, substance abuse history, and past supervision or incarceration experiences. Within the constraints of existing resources, CSOSA has worked to improve the quality of the presentence investigation document. Performance measures for this goal will be structured to allow for a baseline measurement of both overall user satisfaction and specific elements of the investigation that can then be targeted for improvement. It is expected that the initial survey will be administered in FY 2004, with an annual follow-up each year throughout the period covered by this plan. Improvements in the presentence investigation will be achieved primarily through three strategies. First, portions of the investigation will be automated, reducing the amount of time the officer spends on routine clerical functions. Standard language for common phrases will be adopted to eliminate stylistic variations among writers. Second, the development, approval, and submission of each investigation report will be followed in the case management system to ensure timely action. Third, officers performing the investigative function may receive additional training, based on the results of the baseline survey, to improve the quality of certain portions of the document. e6aee55c-1f02-4bea-a790-5721e5c4489c 375e7089-a5e2-48c1-bb28-4a179ac0f083 2003-08-01 2010-09-30 2010-02-08 Arthur Colman ( Submit error.