US – India Strategic Economic Partnership A new era of cooperation between the US and India was ushered in on July 18, 2005 in Washington DC when President George Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh concluded a set of far reaching initiatives which will pave the way for a closer economic and strategic partnership between the two countries at Government and at industry levels. One of the initiatives taken was to form a US-India CEO Forum, comprising selected CEOs from both countries, with a mandate to develop a road map for increased partnership and cooperation between the two countries at a business level. It was also envisaged that this joint Forum could identify issues which might be included in the Agenda for discussion between President Bush and Prime Minister Singh when they meet in New Delhi in March 2006. The US and India share common values based on their democratic, multi–cultural, multi-ethnic and multi-religious societies, as well as a strong entrepreneurial spirit, all of which support the bilateral Strategic Partnership. Both the US and India are committed to full exploitation of the mutual benefits of globalization, which is an irreversible process driven by technology and the development of human resources in an increasingly knowledge-based world. Through mutual harnessing of technology and human capital, the US and India can forge a unique partnership to achieve greater competitiveness and prosperity for the citizens of both nations. The Forum believes the new Economic Partnership will present the US and India with substantial opportunities to increase trade and investment activity, enhance market access for goods and services and develop greater competitiveness in both countries by leveraging their respective strengths. US – India Strategic Economic Partnership USISEP _475ed6c8-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d Unites States India US-India CEO Forum US-India CEO Forum, comprising selected CEOs from both countries, with a mandate to develop a road map for increased partnership and cooperation between the two countries at a business level. It was also envisaged that this joint Forum could identify issues which might be included in the Agenda for discussion between President Bush and Prime Minister Singh when they meet in New Delhi in March 2006. A new era of cooperation between the US and India ... _475eda24-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d [To] forge a unique partnership to achieve greater competitiveness and prosperity for the citizens of India and the United States. _475edb5a-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d Democratic Society Multi–Cultural Society Multi-Ethnic Society Multi-Religious Society Entrepreneurial Spirit Trade and Industry Promotion of Trade and Industry _475edc2c-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 1 Encompassing greater freedom to invest in services sectors, freer movement of people, removal or reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers and subsidies in agriculture and manufactured goods, on both sides. India and the US can partner to make the Doha Round of the WTO a success by showing leadership to support an ambitious outcome and making strong offers in all the key areas of negotiations. Trade and Industry Promotion Trade and Industry Promotion _475edd12-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 1.1 With the objective of doubling trade every 3 years, promotion of trade and industry by removal of barriers needs to be a priority. The Forum would recommend that a US-India Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA) which includes trade, be considered as a medium term objective. Specific initiatives proposed in this area are: 0421e6da-f135-403e-94ae-e816b5a6d26a Foreign Investment Reduce restrictions on foreign investment _475ede0c-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 1.1.i.a U.S. Government Government of India Action: USG and GoI. 0d2ebd9d-c136-42b8-a68c-7e594be4f471 FDI in the Indian Retail Sector Expedite the decision to allow FDI in the Indian Retail Sector beyond the limited opening up of the sector provided currently. _475edefc-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 1.1.i.a.1 Indian Retail Sector (as an immediate first step, GoI could permit FDI in Retail in all SEZs and/ or permit joint ventures in retail with minority foreign investment) dbbdd1f9-fc82-4c38-9a6f-542e826d0289 FDI Caps Accelerate the timetable to raise FDI caps in the Indian Insurance sector and allow foreign FDI in Indian private sector banks as well as an accelerated approval of foreign bank applications for branches in India. _475ee046-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 1.1.i.a.2 Indian Insurance Sector e258b74a-6e89-4e44-864d-b948a5cdc78c Remove restrictions on expansion / new branches by Indian banks in the US. _475ee136-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 1.1.i.a.3 Indian Banks 9cd94aaf-0892-474b-9c4e-9a9ee2763ba0 Business and Professional Personnel Facilitate Movement of Business and Professional Personnel _475ee230-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 1.1.ii Business Personnel Professional Personnel U.S. Government Government of India d5fd229f-6986-442b-aa7b-23afec6548e6 Service Providers US should liberalize the visa regime for service providers in fields ranging from IT (H1B/L1) to Nursing staff (EB3) where the US is facing a shortage of trained personnel. _475ee334-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 1.1.ii.a Service Providers As in goods, progressively ease quantitative restrictions/yearly quotas of such visas. Further impediments on the grant of H1B/ L1 visas such as attestation requirements, reduction of periods of stay and prescriptive wage levels need to be dispensed with. 6cde055c-b30d-4618-ba00-8cdda611581c Visas For select countries/ strategic partners, such as the US, India should provide visas for up to 5 years and remove Foreigners Registration Office (FRO/ FRRO) requirements to report in physically once a year. _475ee438-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 1.1.ii.b 065d9fc2-e828-496d-a271-367e477b1d07 Tourism Facilitate Tourism _475ee73a-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 1.1.iii Tourists U.S. Government Government of India The tourist flows between India and the US, though small at present, hold great potential given the strong linkages that India has with the US in trade, education and entertainment and leveraging off the "Open Skies" agreement signed between the two countries in 2005. Both countries would benefit by making tourist visas easier to obtain. Action: USG and GoI. c9b792af-d67d-4aed-98e5-23b377f376b3 Totalization Agreement Sign a Totalization Agreement _475ee870-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 1.1.iv It is estimated that over $500 million is contributed annually by Indian companies to the US Social Security with no benefits to the people for whom these contributions are made. India and the US should sign a Totalization Agreement such that Social Security contributions are made in only one country or a refund-on-return regime is put in place when Indian employees leave the US and return to India. Action: USG and GoI. b7b73b22-3778-456e-8ff0-7249ba77d9cb Dispute Settlement Set Up a Dispute Settlement Mechanism _475ee99c-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 1.1.v U.S. Government Government of India A dispute settlement mechanism that has the power and jurisdiction to resolve commercial and contractual disputes quickly could be set up by India. An independent tribunal formed through the Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996 should be a forum for dispute resolution. Specific focus on resolving legacy issues such as those impacting Dow / Bhopal tragedy of 1984 and the Tamil Nadu IPPs would send a strong positive signal to US investors. In addition, India could undertake to strengthen and reform the judicial system to address the large backlog of cases and the time taken to complete legal proceedings. The issues of no limit on the number of adjournments, too few judges/ too many vacancies, large number of court holidays and poor physical infrastructure, need to be addressed on an urgent basis. Action: Task Force on Judicial Reform recommended – comprising representatives from Law Ministry, GoI, Supreme Court and CEO Forum members. Task Force to submit their recommendations in 3 months (possibly to the Law Commission that could assess/ approve these recommendations). f891b4bf-6468-4b0a-87b5-6abea2cff412 Defense Greater defense industry cooperation and a liberal offset regime. _655bab60-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 1.1.vi U.S. Government Government of India Action: USG and GoI. d7a31de4-4302-45fe-bd7d-774be326a7b6 Indian Defense Contractors US should treat approved Indian defense contractors on par with those of other strategic allies such as UK. _655bb344-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 1.1.vi.a Indian Defense Contractors Indian IT Firms Indian IT firms should be permitted to bid for US technology programs after receiving appropriate clearances. 79cadec5-cdac-4447-b0c4-57f8cde4a6df Indirect Defense Offset Regime India’s could adopt an "indirect" defense offset regime by including areas such as commercial space, R&D, etc. _655bb696-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 1.1.vi.b The offset program could be based on a review of global best practices adapted to India’s needs in defense and high technology. 7020b036-6228-4477-ade8-533823e2c10a Indian Institute for Regulation Set up an Indian Institute for Regulation _655bb79a-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 1.1.vii Indian Institute for Regulation An independent institute which develops into a think-tank with a strong research base will provide an excellent platform for development of regulatory practices. U.S. Businesses and their associations with GoI support. Indian Businesses U.S. Businesses Indian Business Associations U.S. Business Associations Government of India Action: US and Indian businesses and their associations with GoI support. 33ed8ffd-e1c5-449b-89c4-fff877bd2c59 Infrastructure Creation of an Infrastructure Development Fund _475eeae6-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 2 This could act as a vehicle for US investment into Indian infrastructure. It is proposed that a corpus of $ 5 billion be targeted, with minority Indian Government participation, and leveraging the expertise of the World Bank/ IFC/ ADB and other financial institutions in the selection and monitoring of investments. Physical Infrastructure Development Physical Infrastructure Development  _475eeca8-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 2.1 India’s infrastructure needs exceed its domestic (public and private) funding capacity. The US could assist/ participate in the development of India’s infrastructure through technology sharing, systems design, or investment/ funding. 2f9d6788-4ee5-4721-a96c-dbc8f4da90f3 Public Private Partnerships Encourage public private partnerships. _655bb880-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 2.1.i Government of India Public private partnerships must be encouraged and the Indian government must play a lead role in fostering speed, efficiency and transparency in the bidding process for Infrastructure contracts to attract more US companies. Action: Government of India (GoI). 7ff0794e-e4b6-4155-8444-25ec91f38ada Mumbai Regional Financial Centre Make Mumbai into a Regional Financial Centre. _655bb970-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 2.1.ii Mumbai Expert Committee on the Mumbai Regional Financial Centre Ministry of Finance (MoF) Government of India The US could partner India in making Mumbai into a Regional Financial Centre. This partnership could extend from the ‘softer’ aspects such as an appropriate regulatory framework, to the ‘hard’ aspects of identification of infrastructure needs and participating in their financing. Action: Expert Committee on the Mumbai Regional Financial Centre set-up by the Ministry of Finance (MoF), GoI 6753a783-0cdc-4e29-8ec1-e46dd2fd1293 Infrastructure Fund Set up a private sector Infrastructure Fund. _655bba4c-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 2.1.iii World Bank ADB IFC CEO Forum Set up a $5 billion plus private sector Infrastructure Fund (with minority government participation) drawing on the resources and expertise of World Bank/ADB/IFC and other financial institutions. The fund would lend long tenor debt as well as invest in the equity of infrastructure projects. Action: CEO Forum, Working Group of US and Indian businesses/ associations, working with the MoF and RBI. 883b1b21-5947-4682-9e62-69236c975204 Special Economic Zones Set up large scale Special Economic Zones (SEZ’s) in India. _655bbb28-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 2.1.iv US-India Private Sector Task Force Set up large scale Special Economic Zones (SEZ’s) in India, designed to serve both domestic and export markets, that comprise world-class infrastructure with integrated real estate, power and transportation facilities, single window clearance approval and administrative process, flexible, internationally-competitive labor laws and transparency/clarity of governance. Action: A US-India private sector Task Force comprising representatives from various industry/manufacturing sectors to work with the appropriate Central and State Government agencies to expedite execution of plans to set up such SEZ’s. d02c2347-d1b1-4fc3-b7a5-0b365be8c673 Energy Security Energy Security _475eee42-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 2.2 India’s need for reliable sources of power and energy are substantial and growing. Only 55% of households in India have access to electricity. Electricity supply remains a bottleneck for growth, particularly in the Indian rural/ agricultural sector. Captive and back-up power generation is costly and less efficient. An opportunity exists for US companies to be involved and invest in the power sector in India. aa009b88-7185-4538-a30d-eb7b1d566820 Power Sector Reform Reform India's power sector. _655bbc54-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 2.2.i US-India Private Sector Task Force Government of India India should move more aggressively in reforming its power sector to ensure sanctity of contracts, encourage greater investment/ competition in generation, promote market driven tariff structure and achieve a separation of regulatory and adjudicatory authority, among other things. Action: A US-India private sector Task Force comprising power companies to work with GoI and select state government agencies to facilitate on-time implementation of investments being made and resolution of legacy disputes in the Indian power sector. 1d1e8647-8f2c-40ae-b5e8-9f13d5bd6d68 Clean Energy Support cost-effective technologies that foster a clean environment. _655bbd44-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 2.2.ii U.S. Government Government of India Support for cost effective technologies that foster a clean environment especially in the areas of Coal, where India has large reserves, Bio-fuels, Hydrogen and Wind energy. Action: US Government (USG) and GoI. 38b6b8e5-e8ec-4aca-ac10-f3997a7bd0ff Legislation and Policy Enact the proposed Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Bill (‘Regulatory Bill’) and draft Natural Gas Pipeline Policy (‘Pipeline Policy’). _655bbe3e-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 2.2.iii Government of India In the Petroleum and Natural Gas sector an early enactment of the proposed Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Bill (‘Regulatory Bill’) and draft Natural Gas Pipeline Policy (‘Pipeline Policy’) is recommended. The sector also needs greater transparency and market driven pricing in petroleum products and natural gas and upgrade of retail marketing practices. Action: GoI. f4b1951b-6cdf-4bdb-b12c-c9a8d92ff1ae Civil Nuclear Technology Supplies Open up of civil nuclear technology supplies from the US to India. _655bbf56-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 2.2.iv U.S. Government Government of India The opening up of civil nuclear technology supplies from the US to India, which is currently on a government to government track, will not only bring the prospects of energy self sufficiency to India but open up a significant flow of technology exchange and build mutual trust between the two countries. Action: USG and GoI. 707597af-9844-46ba-8a76-d5f9d1bce2e6 Technology Exchange Promote Technology Exchange in Agriculture, Biotechnology and Nanotechnology _475eefbe-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 3 Through a combination of exchange of scientists between Universities/Labs in the two countries and by setting up Centres for R&D in these fields supported by the two Governments. Technology Exchange Technology Exchange _475ef144-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 3.1 Across all sectors Technology and R&D are key determinants of business prosperity and national competitiveness. India and the US are already cooperating in Technology and R&D. Based on a special effort to evolve closer ties in Technology, the future could witness an explosion of such activity. In addition, India is a major buyer of high technology equipment from defense to avionics to engineering components/systems. It needs however, reliable, long-term sources of supply and simple and rational export licensing measures that carry a guarantee of stability and continuity. These will ensure that the US companies are not competitively disadvantaged in the Indian marketplace. Regulations permitting the export of technology sensitive items will mean that US companies can export to India or partner Indian companies to significantly accelerate various science and technology programs. India, on its part, needs to create the appropriate policy and regulatory climate to encourage adoption of technology in sectors of national importance such as "green environment", "safety and security" and "energy efficiency". Specific incentives (lower taxes and/ or import tariffs) could be geared toward fostering increased use of such technologies. ae24fd51-c1b6-4ffd-b386-a7ba46f68209 US Export Licensing Simplify US export licensing policies and procedures. _655bc050-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 3.1.i US-India High Technology Cooperation Group (HTCG) The Forum supports the excellent progress made by the US-India High Technology Cooperation Group (HTCG) in simplifying US export licensing policies and procedures. These should continue to be supported, especially by legislative action where required, to: * Further relax restrictions on transfer to India of high technology and equipment e.g. extension of COMSAT rules to India/ ISRO * Accelerate transfer of dual use items/categories including material sciences, advanced electronics, semi-conductor technology, aviation related technology, key software systems and equipment Action: USG and GoI. 08770db2-9fed-4c09-aa55-f0a73a4f8558 High Technology and Equipment Relax restrictions on transfer to India of high technology and equipment. _655bc14a-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 3.1.i.a 0d3db894-ecd5-403f-9ede-c46471328f91 Dual Use Items Accelerate transfer of dual use items/categories. _655bc280-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 3.1.i.b c23f2d68-907d-458d-b8d8-314921d8b6e2 R&D Collaborations Remove restrictions on R&D collaborations. _655bc384-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 3.1.ii India-US R&D Center for Industrial R&D U.S. Government U.S. Businesses Indian Businesses U.S. Business Associations Indian Business Associations Removal of restrictions on R&D collaborations by the US and encouragement for establishing product design and development centers that would forge stronger and mutually beneficial ties between the two countries in this area. The setting up of an India-US R&D center for Industrial R&D is recommended. Action: USG. R&D Center by US and Indian businesses and their associations working with USG and GoI. 0e931774-40fa-4f90-8785-443be8427fdf Agriculture and Commodity Technology Promote technology exchange in agriculture and commodity markets. _655bc492-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 3.1.iii Indo-U.S. R&D Center for Agricultural R&D U.S. Government Government of India Promote technology exchange in agriculture and commodity markets by setting up an Indo-U.S. R&D center for Agricultural R&D and encouraging collaborations and exchange of scientists in agricultural research by leveraging the capability of US agriculture universities. This could be part of the "US-India Knowledge Initiative on Agricultural Education, Teaching, Research, Service and Commercial Linkages" Action: USG and GoI. e99276fc-5218-4ced-b9c5-270c7110ca4f Biotechnology Regulations Jointly develop a regulatory pathway to ensure regulations surrounding the biotechnology sector are based on sound science. _655bc5d2-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 3.1.iv US FDA Indian FDA Partner in Biotechnology by jointly developing a regulatory pathway to ensure regulations surrounding the sector are based on sound science, are transparent and supportive of policies that encourage investment in and commercialization of biotechnology, and promote trade in biotech goods and services. Both countries (i.e. US FDA working with the Indian FDA) should harmonize legislation to provide opportunities and protection for US as well as Indian companies in biotech related IPR. Extend the scope of the US-India R&D partnership to Nano-technology as well. Action: USG and GoI. For Biotechnology - US FDA and Indian FDA. 67838e14-0439-4b2f-86f1-3c1b8e6dcb80 Skills Partner in Skills Development _475ef2ca-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 4 US and Indian companies could work together for joint sponsorship of select Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) in India and/or in the setting up of new institutes. Human Resource Development Human Resource Development _475ef482-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 4.1 Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) U.S. Institutes of Technology Human Resources are the drivers of competitiveness and innovation and a strong foundation on which the Strategic Economic Partnership can be built. India needs to improve the quality of education to its broad mass of people, outside of the few Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) or equivalent universities. Unmet education needs extend from primary school to advanced research, but the greatest benefits would possibly come from relationships between leading US institutes and Indian institutions (with special emphasis on PhDs) in advanced research. 50e99486-50ab-45d5-ae11-3874b1f8e035 Research and PhD Programs Sponsor participation in establishing institutions of higher education for research and PhD programs with leading US institutes. _655bc73a-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 4.1.i US Institutes of Technology Carnegie Mellon John Hopkins Bell Labs Lincoln Labs MIT U.S. Government Government of India Knowledge Commission Sponsored participation in establishing institutions of higher education for research and PhD programs with leading US institutes like MIT, Lincoln Labs, Bell Labs, John Hopkins and Carnegie Mellon could become focal points of excellence in high technology. The intellectual capital developed and exchange of talent and ideas would benefit both countries. Action: USG and GoI/ Knowledge Commission. 3c23435b-2051-4513-8d3c-bccd1d541547 Institutions of Higher Learning Encourage the setting up of new institutions of higher learning. _655bc866-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 4.1.ii Institutions of Higher Learning Government of India Knowledge Commission India needs to encourage the setting up of new institutions of higher learning and give private educational institutions a free hand in terms of fees, course structure and affiliations. Action: GoI/ Knowledge Commission. 658f8493-3708-40a3-b592-8ed524d2cb90 India’s Industrial Training Institutes Upgrade India’s Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and make their curricula relevant and current. _655bc9c4-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 4.1.iii India’s Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) India’s Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) need to be upgraded and their curricula continuously made relevant and current. US companies could work with Indian companies to promote this skill building for industry and could also partner in the setting up of new institutes. Action: US and Indian businesses and their associations. 8b805131-0153-4dce-b375-541db8f89fb0 Industrial R&D Set up an Indo-US Centre for Industrial R&D in product design and development _475ef63a-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 5 Indo-US Centre for Industrial R&D With support from US and Indian industry and government.  _475ef810-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 48068cd8-77f2-40ec-87e8-9bf9d99248ec Dispute Resolution Establish a Dispute Resolution Mechanism _475ef9d2-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 6 A dispute settlement mechanism that has the power and jurisdiction to resolve commercial and contractual disputes quickly could be set up by India. Continued government focus at both center and state levels is also required to resolve legacy issues. Intellectual Property Protection Intellectual Property Protection _475efbd0-8575-11e1-8fce-b8578cba6d9d 6.1 Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) protection has separated and divided US and Indian businesses in the past but there is an increasing convergence in the approach to IPR and supporting legislation. There is now a mutual, agreed agenda to frame laws, rules and processes to sustain the highest standards of protection to the inventor or the organization, which invests in IP. The next ten years can witness a new surge in partnership in IPR between the U.S. and India which includes mutual cooperation in IPR implementation and enforcement as well as building a "patents" culture. 76b0681e-3a58-4b97-9c7a-4ea52552e56d IPR Enforcement Step up national coordination of IPR enforcement efforts in India. _655bcaf0-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 6.1.i Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Ministry of Human Resources Development (HRD) Government of India National coordination of IPR enforcement efforts in India must be stepped up. Today, enforcement is handled on the state level, and the results vary dramatically. Many of the specialized police units set up by the states are barely active and lack training, manpower and resources. Actions by the Ministries of Information and Broadcasting and Human Resources Development (HRD) to co-ordinate state enforcement efforts are important first steps. The goal should be a national unit dedicated to IPR enforcement and with powers to enforce across state borders. As a first step, a single centralized body should be designated to coordinate IPR enforcement efforts, identify and publicize best enforcement practices at the state level, and direct national resources to IPR enforcement. Action: GoI. 45c81d9d-6833-40ef-b83f-71a32d0c377a Intellectual Property Courts Establish intellectual property courts. _655bcc26-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 6.1.ii Intellectual Property Courts Ministry of Law and Justice Government of India Specialized intellectual property courts should be established to handle both civil and criminal matters. Establishing such courts is a practical first step toward whittling down the huge backlog of cases and making the enforcement system functional. To handle the piracy docket efficiently, judges, prosecutors, and other court personnel need specialized training. Specialized IP court divisions could also adopt their own rules to expedite the handling of cases. This approach, which has proven successful for several other countries in the region, such as Thailand, should be initiated in India. Pilot projects in select state court systems could be the first step. Action: Ministry of Law and Justice, GoI. c3deee4b-9b19-4845-ad0d-db8fd191ad9c Educational and Research Piracy Crack down on piracy in the educational and research sectors. _655bcda2-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 6.1.iii Ministry of Human Resource Development Government of India A national initiative to crack down on piracy in the educational and research sectors should be initiated. The Ministry of Human Resource Development (and other relevant ministries, such as Health, for medical schools) could issue directives to all public and private educational and research institutions to stop using unauthorized photocopies of books and journals; take action against on-campus copy-shops engaged in illegal activity; and report periodically to the Ministry on what steps have been taken. This data would form the basis for more targeted efforts in the future. Action: Ministry of Human Resource Development, GoI. c84afba7-d760-4889-ac6d-9f5c16296449 Cyber Security and Data Privacy Reach agreement on cyber security to include data privacy, IPR etc. _655bceec-8598-11e1-84ff-230d8cba6d9d 6.1.iv U.S. Government Government of India Indian IT Providers Agreement should be reached between India and the US on cyber security to include data privacy, IPR etc. Create universal standards in data privacy to build confidence in Indian IT providers. Action: USG and GoI. fe217acf-f4ec-4a1f-9de4-a8e9978566e5 2006-03-01 2010-02-08 http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/genrep/USIndia.pdf Owen Ambur Owen.Ambur@verizon.net Submit error.